Skip to main content

Full text of "New images from Spain : Sergi Aguilar, Carmen Calvo, Teresa Gancedo (and others)"

See other formats


35? 

SERGI AGUILAR 



CARMEN CALVO 



TERESA GANCEDO 



New Images from Spain 



MUNTADAS/SERRAN PAGAN 



_ 



MIQUEL NAVARRO 






GUILLERMO PEREZ VILLALTA 



JORGE TEIXIDOR 



DARIO VILLALBA 



ZUSH 






NEW IMAGES FROM SPAIN 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Library and Archives 



http://www.archive.org/details/newimagesfromspaOOro 



New Images from Spain 



BY MARGIT ROWELL 



This project is supported by the 

Comite Conjunto Hispano Norteamericano 

para Asuntos Educativos y Culturales, the 

Instituto de Cooperacion Iberoamericana 

and The Merrill G. and Emita E. Hastings 

Foundation 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, NEW YORK 



Published by 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York, 1980 

ISBN: 0-89207-023-4 

Library of Congress Card Catalogue Number: 79-92992 

©The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York, 1980 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM FOUNDATION 

President Peter O. Lawson-Johnston 

Trustees The Right Honorable Earle Castle Stewart, Joseph W. Dormer, John Hilson, 

Eugene W. Leake, Wendy McNeil, Frank R. Milliken, A. Chauncey Newlin, 
Lewis T. Preston, Mrs. Henry Obre, Seymour Slive, Albert E. Thiele, Michael 
F. Wettach, William T. Ylvisaker 
Theodore G. Dunker, Secretary, Treasurer 
Solomon R. Guggenheim, Justin K. Thannhauser, Peggy Guggenheim 



Honorary Trustees 

in Perpetuity 

Advisory Board 



Director 
Staff 



Life Members 

Corporate Patrons 
Government Patrons 



Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Simon 

THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM 

Thomas M. Messer 
Henry Berg, Deputy Director 

Floyd Lattin, Museum Secretary; Susan L. Halper, Executive Assistant; Vanessa 
Jalet, Director's Coordinator 

Louise Averill Svendsen, Senior Curator; Diane Waldman, Curator of Exhibi- 
tions; Margit Rowell, Curator; Angelica Zander Rudenstine, Research Curator; 
Linda Shearer, Vivian Endicott Barnett, Associate Curators; Carol Fuerstein, 
Editor; Mary Joan Hall, Librarian,- Ward Jackson, Archivist; Philip Verre, Susan 
B. Hirschfeld, Curatorial Coordinators; Lisa Dennison Tabak, Exhibition 
Coordinator 

Joan M. Lukach, Research Fellow, The Hilla Rebay Foundation 

Mimi Poser, Public Affairs Officer 

Nancy McDermott, Development Officer; Miriam Emden, Membership 

Department Head; Carolyn Porcelli, Development Associate 

Agnes R. Connolly, Auditor,- Charles Hovland, Sales Manager; Marion Kahan, 

Sales Coordinator,- Rosemary Faella, Restaurant Manager; Darrie Hammer, 

Katherine W. Briggs, Information 

Orrin H. Riley, Conservator,- Dana L. Cranmer, Conservation Assistant; 

Elizabeth M. Funghini, Associate Registrar,- Jack Coyle, Assistant Registrar; 

Saul Fuerstein, Preparator ; Scott A. Wixon, Operations Manager; Robert E. 

Mates, Photographer; Mary Donlon, Associate Photographer; Elizabeth S. 

Celotto, Photography Coordinator 

David A. Sutter, Building Superintendent; Guy Fletcher, Jr., Charles Gazzola, 

Assistant Building Superintendents; Charles F. Banach, Head Guard; Elbio 

Almiron, Assistant Head Guard 

Eleanor, Countess Castle Stewart, Mr. and Mrs. Werner Dannheisser, Mr. and 

Mrs. William C. Edwards, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Andrew P. Fuller, Mrs. Bernard F. 

Gimbel, Mr. and Mrs. Peter O. Lawson-Johnston, Mrs. Samuel I. Rosenman, 

Mrs. S. H. Scheuer, Mrs. Hilde Thannhauser 

Alcoa Foundation, Atlantic Richfield Foundation, Exxon Corporation, Mobil 

Corporation 

National Endowment for the Arts, New York State Council on the Arts 



ARTISTS IN THE EXHIBITION 



SERGI AGUILAR 
CARMEN CALVO 
TERESA GANCEDO 
MUNTADAS/SERRAN PAGAN 
MIQUEL NAVARRO 
GUILLERMO PEREZ VILLALTA 
JORGE TEIXIDOR 
DARIO VILLALBA 
ZUSH 



LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION 



Sergi Aguilar 

Carmen Calvo 

J. Carrillo de Albornoz, Granada 

Font Diaz, Barcelona 

Teresa Gancedo 

Gloria Kirby, Madrid 

Collection Lambert, Brussels 

Muntadas/Serran Pagan 

Miquel Navarro 

Guillermo Perez Villalta 

Enrique del Pozo Parrado, Madrid 

J. Suiiol, Barcelona 

Jorge Teixidor 

Dario Villalba 

Zush 

Museo de Arte Abstracto, Cuenca, Spain 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid 



; 



PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



New Images from Spain is meant to fulfill two of the Guggenheim Museum's 
longstanding commitments: the first to younger artists whose work has not 
reached a wide audience; the second to artists from ahroad and thus to inter- 
nationalism. Analogous aims were pursued very recently through the presen- 
tation of British Art Now: An American Perspective and in years past in 
selections such as Amsterdam-Paris-Dusseldorf (1972) and Younger European 
Painters (1953). The specific rationale for New Images from Spain is estab- 
lished by Margit Rowell, the exhibition's curator, in the subsequent pages of 
this catalogue. 

The present exhibition, like all group shows of artists from abroad, in- 
curred considerable costs: extensive travel by the curator was necessary and 
complex logistics were involved in the documentation of material and its 
eventual presentation at the initiating museum and subsequently at other 
institutions in the United States. New Images from Spain could therefore be 
brought to this country only with the generous support of Spanish cultural 
agencies and through the initiatives of their presiding officers. Among these, 
specific thanks are herewith offered to H. E. Manuel Prado Colon de Carvajal, 
Ambassador President of the Instituto de Cooperation Iberoamericana ; H. E. 
Amaro Gonzalez de Mesa, Director General of Cultural Relations, Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs, Madrid, )oint Chairman of the Spain-U.S. Joint Committee 
for Educational and Cultural Affairs,- and Hon. Serban Vallimarescu, Coun- 
selor for Cultural and Information Affairs, Embassy of the United States to 
Spain. That such help became available is due in large measure to the interest 
and commitment of the Spanish authorities — a commitment, it should be 
stressed, that did not in any way inhibit the Guggenheim's free and wholly 
independent assertion of its qualitative judgements. The following repre- 
sentatives and officials of the Kingdom of Spain have for this reason earned 
our special gratitude: H. E. lose Llado Ambassador of Spain to the United 
States; H. E. Javier Tusell, Director General Patrimonio Artistico y Cultural 
of the Ministry of Culture; H. E. Rafael de los Casares, Consul General of 
Spain; Hon. Pablo Barrios Almazor, Secretary of the Spain-U.S. Joint Commit- 
tee for Educational and Cultural Affairs; Hon. Jose Luis Rosello, Cultural 
Counselor, Mr. Ramon Bela, Executive Secretary of the Spain-U.S. Joint 
Committee for Educational and Cultural Affairs. 

Exhibitions of contemporary art, in addition to providing information, are 
also potential sources for museum acquisitions: here again the Guggenheim 
depends upon outside help to achieve its aims. In the current instance, our 
goal was to purchase one work by each of the nine artists represented in 
the exhibition: assistance was provided by Mrs. Gloria Kirby and by The 
Merrill G. and Emita E. Hastings Foundation and its Trustee, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Hastings Peterfreund, whose generosity assured the funds necessary for the 
purchase of several works. In addition, we were fortunate to receive gifts 
from anonymous donors. The opportunity to enrich our collection with works 



by younger artists and thereby keep pace with the developing art scene may 
well be the most important aspect of the Guggenheim's international exhibi- 
tion program. 

Our thanks must also be expressed to the lenders whose willingness to part 
with their possessions is greatly appreciated. Except for those who wish to 
remain anonymous, lenders are separately listed in this catalogue. 

Finally much credit is due to Margit Rowell, the Guggenheim's Curator, 
who undertook the difficult task of selection of New Images from Spain and 
staged the exhibition in this Museum. The bases for Margit Rowell's selective 
judgements are articulated in her own preface and therefore need not be 
stated here. In view of the often strenuous differences of opinion that pertain 
to the evaluation of current art (a notoriously hotly debated subject), it is 
appropriate to affirm our unqualified confidence in Miss Rowell's professional 
capabilities and our resulting readiness to identify fully with her choices. 

THOMAS M. MESSER, Director 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum 



New Images from Spain could not have been realized without the generous 
assistance of innumerable persons throughout its planning stages. Thomas M. 
Messer has acknowledged crucial contributions by organizations and individ- 
uals in his preface,- I would like to add my expression of gratitude to the 
following: 

The galleries in Madrid and Barcelona which generously devoted time to 
acquainting me with recent developments in Spanish art. In particular, the 
galleries Buades, Juana Mordo and Vandres in Madrid; Ciento and Trece in 
Barcelona. 

The critics and friends with whom discussions helped clarify my ideas 
concerning contemporary Spanish art: Juan Manuel Bonet, Paco Calvo, Vic- 
toria Combalia, Daniel Giralt-Miracle, Angel Gonzalez, Fernando Huici, Fran- 
cisco Rivas, Rosa Maria Subirana,- Luis and Carmen Bassat, Gloria Kirby, Jose 
Sunol, Rafael and Isabel Tous, Fernando Vijande. 

Finally, those responsible for the documentation of the catalogue, a task 
which was carried out with exceptional perseverence and devotion: Karen 
Cordero, Blanca Sanchez Perciano and Philip Verre. 

Of course, my sincerest thanks go to the artists themselves, for their 
uncompromising commitment to their art and their enthusiastic support of 
this project. And to the many staff members of this museum whose efforts and 
efficiency made the present exhibition and its catalogue possible. 

M.R. 



NEW IMAGES FROM SPAIN 



MARGIT ROWELL If we refer to the recent exhibition Europe in the Seventies, 1 we must confront 

the question that was posed there: does European art exist? Or is it "almost an 
American invention"? 2 In the context of Spain, this brings to mind other ques- 
tions. Presuming that Spanish art does exist, does our ignorance of it stem from 
a historically determined situation: the relative isolation of the Spanish penin- 
sula from the rest of Western economic and cultural development during the 
twentieth century? Does it derive from a kind of chauvinism which nourishes 
indifference to culture from abroad? Or is it due to a growing cosmopolitanism 
in which all artists are grouped in a single pseudo-nation and no importance 
is attached to native origins? 

Despite prevalent views to the contrary, origins and environment are of 
some importance. It is a truism to assert that a country's culture is related to 
political, social, economic conditions, not to mention intellectual history and 
emotional idiosyncracies. Yet we cannot totally disregard this generality. An 
artist's relation to society is defined by the substance of the society within 
which he lives and works: its mentality, traditions, customs; its political frame- 
work, its social and cultural history, its economic priorities. An artist's rela- 
tionship to the world at large is determined by his access to that world: the 
scope of information available to him. 

In attempting to analyze the art of a country which is not one's own, these 
factors must be kept in mind. Studying an art means studying the milieu in 
which it emerged. Yet this is eminently dangerous. For each critic invokes his 
own social and cultural background in making his judgements. Whereas his 
knowledge is full and his instincts innate concerning his native context, they 
can only be partial in reference to a foreign culture. Thus, from the outset, 
we must recognize that our American perspective of Spanish art cannot be the 
same as the Spanish view of this same art. 

The last exhibition of "contemporary" Spanish art selected by a major Amer- 
ican institution was Frank O'Hara's New Spanish Painting and Sculpture 
shown at The Museum of Modern Art in New York in i960, some twenty years 
ago. Even at that time, Spanish art was inadequately known abroad. Since then 
international exposure to Spanish art has been even more limited. Nonetheless, 
on the basis of quite fragmentary evidence, speculation has flourishd. Before 
attempting to examine the creative activity of the 1970s, therefore, it would be 
interesting to outline the discrepancies between the American perspective and 
certain realities of Spanish art over the past thirty years. 

The American vision of Spanish art from the past few decades may be 
summarized briefly as follows: starting in the mid-i9sos, Spaniards emerged 
on the international art scene with an impact which was extraordinary, par- 

1. The Art Institute of Chicago, October S-November 27, Iy77, Europe in the Seventies: Aspects of 
Recent Art. Traveled to Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C., March 16- 
May 7, 1978; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, June 2vAugust * Fort Worth Art Museum, Sep- 
tember 24-Octobcr 29; Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, December I, 1978-January }r, 1979. 

2, "A Letter from Rudi Fuchs," Europe in the Seventies, p. IV 



Antoni Tapies 
Great Painting. 



[958 



Oil with sand on canvas, 79 x 102 % 
Collection The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New York 




"X > X - 




3i 



<-* 








ticularly in view of their noticeable absence from that arena since the Civil 
War. In 1956 Spain began submitting to international biennials major and 
significant selections by her artists, many of whom received honors. The sculp- 
tor Jorge de Oteiza and the painter Modest Cuixart won Grand Prizes at Sao 
Paulo in 1957 and 1959. In Venice Eduardo Chillida, Antoni Tapies and Luis 
Feito were awarded prizes in 1958 and i960. The presence of these painters and 
sculptors at such exhibitions gave rise to the idea that Spain was a liberal 
democracy where artists could create freely, and where their work was not 
only accepted but promoted by the government agencies controlling the selec- 
tions to be sent abroad. 

The Spanish art which won international prizes, although original, had 
certain affinities to art produced elsewhere. Spanish painting, mainly from 
Barcelona and Madrid, projected an expressionist and existentialist intensity 
comparable to that of Abstract Expressionism in America and tachisme in 
France. Like its counterparts in other countries, this art expressed the freedom 
and value of the individual human act in the face of a mounting tide of con- 
sumerism, industrialization and a progressively dehumanized society and en- 
vironment. But even more significantly, to an outsider's eyes, this Spanish art 
seemed a revolutionary art; it was interpreted as a protest against the current 
political regime, albeit in abstract and somewhat elliptical terms. 



Eduardo Chillida 
From Within. 1953 
Forged iron, 38%" h. 
Collection The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New York 








The most famous examples, from an American point of view, were Tapies 
and Chillida (exceptional as a sculptor), Manuel Millares and Antonio Saura. 
Tapies' seemingly irrational human gestures, his manipulation of natural col- 
ors and textures (signifying a return to essential values) appeared in this con- 
text to be a broadly political statement. Chillida's organic emblems in iron 
and wood, with their rough, hand-hewn qualities, were read in similar and 
vernacular terms. The naked violence and what was interpreted as an energy 
of despair in Saura's and Millares' tortured images, combined with their rejec- 
tion of color (or predilection for black, white, sometimes red) were linked to a 
native past (for example, the tcnebiismo of Goya), but at the same time seemed 
to manifest an untenable political situation specific to the present. 

This generation was particularly visible during the late fifties and early 
sixties. The next phase of Spanish art appeared to express a reaction to in- 
formalism, a desire to be less subjective and more operational, and an aware- 
ness of Pop Art and the mass media which were symptomatic of the new 
generation's relationship to reality. At the same time an outside observer as- 
sumed that the political situation had improved, censorship had been relaxed 
and the artist felt free to express himself in more legible and explicit (that is, 
figurative) images. We may evoke Rafael Canogar and Juan Genoves whose 
only slightly veiled images of protest were presumably acceptable, since they 
too were sent to international exhibitions. A criticism of the Spanish political 
situation was still present, it seemed. However, this generation of the mid- 
sixties and early seventies stated its case more clearly, without ambiguity. 

Yet, with a few exceptions, the artists of this era are already relatively 
obscure in the United States. For whatever reasons, the American stereotype 
of "Spanish" art remains that established by the previous generation: dra- 
matically expressionist, richly textured, chromatically sober. 

Therefore, the art emerging in Spain today is surprising. It is extremely 
eclectic, encompassing a broad range of styles, from realism to varied sorts 
of figuration, to geometric abstraction, to a kind of Color Field, to all manners 
of Conceptual Art (Land Art, Media Art, Body Art|. One finds new materials, 
new themes, new subjects and objects, new processes and techniques, all of 
which appear to be developing in an atmosphere of total freedom. 

If there is one common denominator in the more interesting and original 
art in Spain today, it is the ostensible lack of politicization. And so we conclude 
that this is the image of the new Spain; this is the definition of post-Franco 
art: an art-as-art expression. 



The Spanish perspective, logically and naturally, is quite distinct from our 
own. Beginning with the generation of Tapies, Chillida, Millares, Saura (our 
emblematic references to a group that included many more), two miscon- 
ceptions have been perpetrated. The first concerns the fact that these artists did 
indeed live in an extremely conservative and repressive society against which 
they were in revolt through their underground cultural activities and their 



Antonio Saura 

Rioni. 1959 

Oil on canvas, 63% x 51%" 



Juan Genoves 
The Window. 1975 
Oil on canvas, 59 x 53 V&" 
Private Collection 



Manuel Millares 

Dwarf. 1959 

Oil on burlap, 63% x 5014 






13 



left-wing political position. Yet their artistic expression was political only 
inasmuch as they sought an alternative to the reactionary nationalist and 
traditionalist culture promoted by the regime. They sought to prove that art 
and culture must be free from political control and must not lose touch with 
the most essential and profound human values. Undeniably there was inten- 
sity and anxiety in the forms of the new art. But the supposition that its 
iconography embodied an explicit ideology of political revolt is false. 

Many of the Barcelona-based Dau al Set group 5 were attracted to French 
Surrealism and, of course, were sensitive to its undertones of political subver- 
sion. Yet the Surrealists' real appeal lay in their notion of an art which drew 
on the subconscious and their technique of automatism, areas of interest to 
the concurrent French tachiste school as well. Elsewhere, in Madrid, Millares 
of the El Paso' group was drawn to American Abstract Expressionism. In view 
of the profound spiritual disillusionment in Europe and America after the 
Spanish Civil War and World War II, the recuperation of irrational and indi- 
vidual impulses as antidotes to an increasingly rational, mass-oriented society 
was general. It is therefore more realistic to say that the ultimate concerns of 
these artists were moral on the one hand and formal on the other, rather than 
expressly social or political. And if the works from this era are still meaningful 
today, it is because of their formal qualities. 

The second clarification which must be made in this context is that the 
generation of the fifties, although they represented political opposition, were 
not persecuted for their artistic expression. In the mid-1950s Spain began to 
emerge from a period of isolation and, subsequent to new political and eco- 
nomic agreements with the United States and Europe, could finally encour- 
age tourism and foreign investment. These phenomena forced the Spanish 
government to attempt to modify its image from that of a repressive dictator- 
ship to one of a liberal democracy. 

Hence, the regime's constraints on left-wing intellectuals became more 
subtle than they had been in the more openly repressive forties. For example, 
the artists who were sent abroad to represent a liberal Spain were given little 
opportunity to exhibit at home. In Spain the official circuit was the only cir- 
cuit, and here the government exercised other criteria, selecting post-Cubist 
and late Surrealist artists for domestic consumption. Since there were few 
private galleries, few collectors or patrons, and literally no art press existed, 
there were no alternatives. 

Everyone understood that an invitation to exhibit abroad, even though it 
involved a service to the Franquist government that was often incompatible 
with an artist's political convictions, represented a unique opportunity to 
show work. Moreover, by the late 1950s, artists and intellectuals were naively 
optimistic in believing that the regime's few overtures to the rest of Europe 

v Founded in n>.ix Dau .1/ Set included the painters Iapies Cuixari and loan Tone, as well as poet-. 

philosophers and critics 

4 Founded in iys7. the artists of £/ Paso included Saura, Millares, Canogar and Manuel Rivera. 



14 



were signs of a liberalization and would be followed by progressive social 
change. 

During the 1960s the relationship between the government and artists 
underwent a radical modification. Artists boycotted international exhibitions 
and all government-sponsored manifestations at home. There was a violent 
reaction against informalism, which was seen as the officially approved avant- 
garde. Exploited by the state for its own designs to project an image of liberal- 
ism abroad, informalism had also attracted younger artists who saw in its 
practice an opportunity to gain an international reputation. 

By 1968, social unrest had reached a peak. Universities were shut down 
and the increased social awareness of Spanish intellectuals and artists led 
them to question the notion of an avant-garde expression which revealed 
itself to be useless and irrelevant, not only in terms of its abstract language 
(hermetically obscure) but its audience (capitalist, bourgeois and international) 
and its content (subjective, irrational, individualistic and without social com- 
mitment). Spain's growth as a capitalist economy and the influx of foreign 
information merely confirmed the political left in its perceptions of the repres- 
sions and effects endemic to a capitalist state: imperialist wars, political assas- 
sinations, social inequalities, police brutalities. 

This complex political situation and the social consciousness of Spanish 
artists gave rise to two formal directions, both developed in reaction to infor- 
malism. Each tendency represented a call to order. The first was a form of 
geometric abstraction, known in Spain as tacionalismo, arte analitico or arte 
normative). The connotations are clear: rationalism, objectivity, anonymity. As 
in earlier twentieth-century variants of geometric art, the goal was a new 
pictorial language to express an ideal of harmony and order, an order which 
could be integrated into the social and visual fabric of modern life. Yet it soon 
became clear that even when extended to the design of everyday objects, this 
language was inaccessible to the people; and the ideals referred to an ab- 
stract Utopian notion of human society rather than a concrete, historically- 
determined social situation. 

The second dominant movement of the sixties — nueva figuration — 
addressed itself directly to the situation at hand. It was comprised of several 
kinds of figuration, one of the more original of which is described by the 
term "critical realism" and represented by artists such as Canogar, Genoves, 
Eduardo Arroyo, Equipo Cronica? These artists and many others attacked the 
capitalist world at a variety of levels through the microcosm of Spain. They 
criticized political situations and consumer society by evoking familiar inci- 
dents and objects, symbols and myths. They focused on specific national prob- 
lems and refused to let themselves be promoted by the regime. 

These artists strove to create an art that was direct and uniquivocal in 
content and language. Their precedent was the Estampa Popular movement 

5. Two Valencian artists who have collaborated since the early iy6os on paintings and sculptures, 
signing themselves "Equipo Crdnica." 

15 






i6 



Jose Maria Yturralde 
T-26. 1972 

Acrylic on wood, 67 y 8 x 77V2" 
Collection the artist 



Luis Gordillo 

Male Head. 1973 

Acrylic on canvas, 63 x 47 VS" 

Collection J. Suiiol, Barcelona 



Eduardo Arroyo 
Search in St. Sebastian. 1967 
Oil on canvas, 44% x 5814" 
Collection Peter Selinka 



of the late rysos and early 1960s. This was not a school based on a single style 
but a group of artists of many formal persuasions who banded together to make 
prints which would be conceptually and economically accessible to all sectors 
of the population. Taking their inspiration from German Expressionism and 
the art of the Mexican Revolution, they produced inexpensive, clearly political 
woodcuts and linocuts in large numbers. They wished to subvert the idea that 
the fine arts were unique, expensive, arcane and therefore reserved for the 
educated classes. 

Estampa Popular was not particularly successful because its exhibitions 
were limited to the traditional fine arts circuit and the prints did not reach 
the inclusive population for which they were intended. Yet the experience was 
fruitful for many artists in that they became aware of the resources of popular 
or familiar imagery as well as the impact that a simplified visual syntax could 
obtain. Much of this experience would be translated into the new vernacular 
of nueva figuracion whose professed aims of clear, direct communication were 
identical. 



Equipo Cronica 
The Living Room. 1970 
Acrylic on canvas, 79 x 79" 
Collection the artist 




17 



Simultaneously, the generation of the sixties discovered Pop Art. But in 
view of their cultural isolation and political commitment, the Spaniards' rela- 
tionship to Pop Art differed from that of artists in other European countries. 
In the first instance, Spanish artists' exposure to Pop Art was usually second- 
hand, obtained either through black and white reproductions, written descrip- 
tions or word of mouth reports. In other words, it usually reached them 
through the media. If one considers that a basic raw material of Pop Art is the 
media image which is translated by a specific subjectivity into a language of 
artistic conventions, it is interesting to observe that by the time this art form 
arrived in Spain, it had been reconducted into a secondary reproduction or 
media image. Second, Spain was less media-dominated than most of her Euro- 
pean neighbors. And Spanish artists' training was still extremely academic. 
So that the media stereotype as a new material impressed Spanish artists more 
than its particular transformations. 

As we have mentioned, these artists sought objectivity and communica- 
tion above all else. The photographic or otherwise reproductive image pro- 
vided them with a medium at the opposite extreme from that of the accepted 
avant-garde of informalism: it had no texture, no subjective handwriting, no 
abstract images or elliptical signs, no aura of sacredness. Their new technique 
would be a decontextualization and assemblage into new images of cultural 
myths and hallowed artistic styles, thereby provoking a new awareness or 
questioning of accepted values. The exposure to Pop Art was extremely opera- 
tive, producing results germane to the Spanish situation. Because an important 
aspect of Pop Art is its challenge of the entire meaning, function and language 
of the "fine" art idiom. In bringing the artist's activity to the borderline of 
commercial art, it forces the invention of a new set of criteria for judging 
works of art. This corresponded to the politically-grounded ideals of the new 
generation of artists in Spain. It helped them develop a vocabulary and syntax 
appropriate to their political, social and intellectual concerns. 

These artists did not wish to be promoted through the official circuits. 
Fortunately, by the late t96os and early 1970s private galleries and patrons 
began to lend their support to the new generation. Spanish art was seen in 
neutral public places or in private homes, foreign critics traveled to Spain, 
and these critics and private dealers from abroad began to bring out Spanish 
art. International exhibitions — no longer considered prestigious and political 
showcases — asked international juries of critics to review national selections, 
thereby providing more objective points of view. 

The generation of the 1970s shares certain preoccupations with its imme- 
diate predecessors but does not include political content in its art. Most of 
these artists are socially concerned and many are members of the Spanish 
Communist party (PCE), but this commitment is not reflected in their work. 
At first glance, the art looks more innocent than that of the previous genera- 
tion. It seems detached, freely imaginative, optimistic. In actual fact, perhaps 
these artists are less ingenuous. Experience has revealed the pitfalls and futil- 



18 



ity of an engage art which can easily be exploited to ends antithetical to its 
commitment. The younger artists are aware that art does not change the 
world nor does it even reach the masses. It is perhaps the first generation for 
a long time which does not feel pressure to express some political commit- 
ment in its work. 

Yet the rejection of the authority of the international avant-garde con- 
tinues nonetheless. And this is an important consideration in the appreciation 
of Spanish art today. This rejection is not based only upon ideology,- there 
are practical and economic considerations as well. To begin with, the defini- 
tion of the avant-garde has changed. If at the outset the term was reserved for 
a minority, today its aesthetic standards are set by an international majority. 
A logical sequence from one aesthetic development to the next, traced by 
critics, art historians, collectors, patrons and museums, establishes and im- 
poses a reassuring continuity of styles. However, the Spanish peninsula, due 
to its history and geography, has been isolated from the official sequence of 
avant-garde movements for several decades. Its artists have only participated 
sporadically and accidentally in the international mainstream and have not 
produced the same impact or reflected any of the same logical continuity at 
home. Information about foreign movements is sparse and secondhand. For- 
eign art books and periodicals are still largely unavailable today. Exhibitions of 
artists from abroad are rare. Works by foreign artists are not collected by the 
few museums of modern art in Spain.' And the fragmented information that 
does exist is disparate and meaningless in a country whose twentieth-century 
history is parallel to but separate from that of the rest of Europe. As a result, 
the Spanish artist's creative life is peripheral to the international mainstream. 

Second, the rules of the avant-garde today are determined in no small way 
by a buyer's and seller's market. But an art market as it exists elsewhere is not 
a reality in Spain. An art market which imposes demands, dictates public 
taste, deals out critical or financial acclaim at an international level, is almost 
an abstraction to many Spanish artists today and, as a result, it is not a priority. 
This is equally true for many Spanish critics and collectors, for whom the 
succes d'estime counts as much if not more than the succes commercial. Spain 
is perhaps one of the last countries in which this distinction is sustained. 

Therefore, the Spanish artist is less self-conscious than others regarding 
a competitive market system, with its imperious aesthetic and economic value 
scales. The incomplete nature of information from abroad and its lack of mean- 
ing in relation to his own context forces him to rely on the resources his coun- 
try can offer: his past and present, his emotional and conceptual experience, 
his physical environment and cultural traditions, and accessible knowledge, 
even if only fragmentary. This creates a restricted universe of material which 

6. On the subject of museums of contemporary art in Spain, their history and collections, see Rosa 
Man'a Subirana, "Museos y Centros de Arte Contempnraneo en el Estado espanol," m Batik (Barcelona], 
no. 3S, June-luly iy77, pp. 41-47. It is worth noting m this context that some artists of an older genera- 
tion have sought to perpetuate the lack of exposure to foreign art in Spain in order to maintain their 
own authority. 

19 



must suffice. And his own subjectivity and imagination which sort and filter 
are his only guides. 

In one sense, today's Spanish artist is in an enviable position. He is not 
psychologically competitive or economically oriented. Since information from 
the outside is a minor and marginal coefficient in the equation that defines 
his art, he does not risk becoming derivative of the international avant-garde. 
Because no market exists at home, the artist is in a position to generate one — 
forge his own criteria and form his audience and critics. And the historical 
conjuncture of theoretical, political and economic freedom (despite rampant 
inflation) is favorable. So that paradoxically, isolation, often a handicap in 
Spanish history, may offer an advantage to this generation. 



POETIC REALISM: TERESA GANCEDO 

In today's international art world, true realism is not avant-garde. From the 
Spanish perspective, in some ways it is even more traditional than elsewhere, 
because it has existed for so long, at least since the sixteenth century when 
Spanish and Flemish painting shared many common characteristics. Although 
certain styles of realism have lately come again to the international vanguard 
scene — in the forms of Pop Art, Hyper-, Sharp Focus-, or Photo-Realism — a 
tradition of muted, near-literal realism, not comparable to these, has pursued 
its uninterrupted course in Spain for several decades. In a way, it is a separate, 
parallel tradition, represented today by its strongest and best-known exponents: 
Antonio Lopez-Garcia, Julio Hernandez, Carmen Laffon, Francisco Lopez and 
others. 

The work of Teresa Gancedo, the artist closest to a realist tradition in this 
exhibition, is a strange and personal synthesis of modernist concerns and this 
tradition of realism, and is thus unassimilated and marginal to both. Gancedo's 
realist affinities are seen in her subject matter and her technique. Her subjects 
are taken from the age-old traditions of a Catholic country (she is not a prac- 
ticing Catholic and feels these motifs belong to popular rather than religious 
customs pertaining to the ritual celebrations of life and death). Although 
images of death dominate her most recent paintings — the reliquaries, ceme- 
teries, mortuary wreaths — death for Gancedo is not frightening but natural. 
Perhaps it is the extreme moment of revelation of the meaning of life. She 
also draws on nature: birds and reptiles, trees and flowers at different stages 
of their life cycles: egg, embryo, skeleton returning to dust; bud, flower, dead 
denuded branch. 

Gancedo's technique is also related to a realist tradition. Often her point 
of departure is a photograph from a magazine or newspaper, which may be 
reproduced as is (through photo emulsion directly on the canvas), or hand- 
tinted. Sometimes she makes objects (of wrapped twigs, for example) which 
she attaches to the canvas, or she copies in perfect renderings. Her drawing 



Antonio Lopez-Garcia 

Icebox. 1968 

Oil on wood panel, 47*4 x 57V6" 




is precise and immaculate to the point of trompe-l'oeil. Each formulation is 
a different transcription of reality. 

Despite these distinct and faithful translations of real objects, the results 
are situated at a level other than reality itself: because the artist's reality exists 
in a time-frame very different from that of our everyday lives. Whether the 
objects are isolated in sequential compartments, organized according to a grid 
structure or freely dispersed over the flat surface of her support, they are 
severed from the time and space of their original context and are also foreign 
to our own lived experience. Occasionally blurred by a uniform faded wash 
or clouded glass panes, they seem to be filtered through the artist's personal 
memories and redistributed according to her own sense of time: past, present, 
possible or undefined. Thus they cannot be read according to the automatisms 
of ordinary perception (from close-up to depth or from whole to part, for 
example]. Because we are forced to follow a linear or circular discursive se- 
quence we must shift from one level of reality to another, thereby encountering 
different physical, spatial, temporal, perceptual, tactile experiences. 

So that if Gancedo's vocabulary derives from a realist tradition, her syn- 
tax — the alternate or simultaneous uses of the grid, narrative sequence, repe- 
tition and rhythm, or even an allover emphasis — shows an awareness of 
strictly contemporary formal preoccupations. As a young artist she was at- 
tracted to Lopez-Garcia for certain aspects of his realism: a magical intimacy 



in his approach and the mixture of reminiscences and present reality,- and to 
Tapies for a mystical relationship to reality, seen in his abstract concept of 
space, his mysterious transformations of concrete materials and "floating" 
objects (unanchored in reality, even though tactile entities). 

Although we can understand the logic of her affinities, Gancedo's dis- 
course on reality expresses a highly idiosyncratic vision and method, a subtle 
emulsion of subjectivity and objectivity, which cannot be assimilated to 
either of these modern traditions. 

EXPRESSIONIST BAROQUE: DARIO VILLALBA 

Aesthetically, Villalba belongs to the second postwar generation. But his art 
proves that superficial distinctions, based on immediate impact or partial 
knowledge, do not remain valid under scrutiny. Villalba's work has been 
compared to the critical realism of Genoves and Canogar, artists who osten- 
sibly repudiated informalism and attempted to make more direct political or 
social statements. 

Yet it is important to isolate the aspects of informalism which were un- 
acceptable to the subsequent generation. These were, in particular, its abstrac- 
tion, its manipulation of crude materials and its individualistic expression. The 
artists of the next generation, while they sought a solution in more anonymous 
figuration — often inspired by or borrowed from the media — did not abandon 
the chromatic sobriety, the attention to materials (although different materials) 
and the underlying expressionism and moral implications of their predeces- 
sors. They did not reject informalism out of hand, only some of its more 
obvious characteristics. 

Villalba has chosen photography and plastic as his materials, not only as 
a result of his exposure to Pop Art but because they correspond to the reality 
he seeks to depict. His reality is that of the human condition in the modern 
world, a condition of estrangement in a technological environment. The ar- 
tist's particular focus is alienation, as producing acute physical or mental pain 
(sickness or madness), and leading to hospitalization, imprisonment or other 
forms of ostracism from human society. Yet the isolation and psychological 
suffering are as intense for those who continue to live in society. So that Vil- 
lalba's subject matter — essentially fugitives or victims of society — are para- 
digms of our own existence. 

Photographs, as objective representations of living beings, divest human 
figures of warmth, mobility, expression, emotion, and translate them into clin- 
ical records. For Villalba, photography is the ideal medium through which to 
abstract highly-charged emotional images. Yet he compensates for the loss of 
human vitality by silhouetting and enlarging these mechanical images, thus 
intensifying the helpless solitude of his subjects. 

Through much of the 1970s Villalba encapsulated his iconic silhouettes 
in plastic bubbles. The figures, free in space, are in fact entrapped within invis- 



Juan Genoves 

On the Ground. 1975 

Oil on canvas, 33V2 x 39-%" 

Private Collection 




tffci 



ible walls, suffocating, separate. Hanging from a frame, they may be pushed or 
played with, a further allegory of their victimization. So that photography and 
plastics, despite their Pop Art origins, are not used to evoke the anonymous 
banality of our consumerized lives but to remind us of the existence of other 
values from which we have isolated ourselves. 

Paradoxically, the use of technology humanized the artist's concept and 
heightened his expressionism. Although Villalba at first did not manipulate 
his photographic images (for him these figures were "untouchable"), his choice 
and framing of subjects conveyed his precise feelings. The most recent work 
reveals the artist's desire to participate more actively, to identify, rather than 
remain intimidated or aloof. Obscuring certain details, totally obliterating 
others, adding crude tense gestures which accentuate the contained emotion 
(instead of showing the artist's real compassion), he arrives at a more mysteri- 
ous but no less powerful statement. 

These recent paintings reveal a nostalgia for Abstract Expressionism (an 
avowed affinity) and the more European form it took in El Paso. In this work 
we may speak of a baroque sensibility in which aggressive physicality and a 
kind of compassionate mysticism fuse in an image of violent oppositions and 
vitally expressive motifs. 



13 



SUBJECTIVITY/OBJECTIVITY: MUNTADAS 

Villalba's baroque expression, despite its borrowing of images and techniques 
from the Pop idiom, is nonetheless close, in its humanistic preoccupations, to 
the art of the fifties. Both are existential, moralizing and draw on the irrational 
of both artist and viewer. But what is the subjectivity of our time? The genera- 
tions of the sixties and early seventies were usually more sceptical than their 
predecessors, maintaining that there is no subjectivity but rather a pseudo- 
subjectivity shaped by an invisible although pervasive ideological context. The 
goal of the critical realists, for instance, was to dismantle the system of hidden 
mechanisms which controls and directs so-called subjectivity. 

Some artists (such as those of Equipo Cidnica) sought to subvert the ideo- 
logical framework through the medium of art itself. They borrowed their 
visual vocabulary from the media and from earlier, established avant-gardes, 
displacing or decontextualizing it so it could be seen for what it was and no 
longer as an unquestioned, untouchable cultural symbol. They provoked a 
new look at art, at cultural values, at the automatisms of perception; at the 
relationships between culture and society, between art and politics. Others, 
like Muntadas, felt obliged to choose different visual means which, although 
generally accepted, were less culturally sacred and paralleled or illuminated 
the conditioned responses of the aesthetic experience. 

For Muntadas the traditional art experience is marked by passivity: the 
viewer does not participate, he receives. Further, the art object has become a 
marketable product and a symbol of social status. Like many artists of his age, 
Muntadas attempted to escape the closed circuit of commercialized value sys- 
tems and make works of art which incite a participatory and critical response 
and are thereby socially useful. 

The landscape of twentieth-century man is a landscape of information 
processed by the media. It is presumably factual (in contrast to art), and we 
do not question its objective neutrality. But the media, as the word implies, 
mediates information. The anonymous (or identifiable) people "behind the 
news" are selective. In this they are no different from the nineteenth-century 
painter who selected and modified his motifs in the process of preparing his 
landscape. In both cases ideological premises color the subjectivity which 
filters facts according to conscious or unconscious priorities. 

Muntadas' goal is to demythify the notion of objectivity by attacking the 
circuits of public communication. By extension this leads to a questioning of 
the concept of personal freedom upon which our societies are built: freedom 
to respond to outside stimuli, freedom to process information, freedom to act 
or be. He also shows us that we are prisoners, not of a given society, but of 
unconscious ideologies. Muntadas focuses "between the lines,"" on the dis- 
torting mechanisms that change what is real into what is offered as real, and 
on the commitments which direct these mechanisms. 

7 The title of a project by the artist, February 1979. 



24 



Muntadas 

Subjectivity /Objectivity: 
Private /Public Information 
Brochure for video presentation, 
The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, April 3, 1979 



^h^n ~M/^ < V-^v 



kf^Jr 




C^CiTA^\f/A, 






]Ujvv7 'UulJLV-, 



kOs^A^ 



He uses the media to dismantle its own image. A videotape shown on a 
television monitor puts the viewer in the same psychological state of passive 
receptivity as that engendered by commercial television. Yet when Muntadas 
reveals how the television synopsis is made and what is discarded, the viewer 
realizes that the information has been processed into selected symbols which 
betray the total factual fabric. He realizes he has been manipulated. And, al- 
though the demonstration proves that neither he who makes the news nor he 
who receives it has any personal freedom, an awareness of this erosion of 
reality can produce more active critical attitudes. 

Since Muntadas is Catalan by birth, he has firsthand knowledge of ide- 
ological manipulation. The Franquist regime was particularly repressive in 
Catalonia, banning the Catalan language in schools and printed and spoken 
media, attacking all other aspects of the Catalan national culture and identity 
and substituting an all-powerful centralized, conventionalized (and by Catalan 
standards, meaningless) propaganda. Probably for these reasons, there is more 
politically oriented and conceptual art in Barcelona than elsewhere in Spain,- 
and no doubt for the same reasons, Catalans form the majority of Spanish 
expatriates. Yet if Catalonia is an extreme example, it is not unique. A strong 
contextual ideology is the spiritual and practical basis of all human societies. 



25 






In his most recent project, Pamplona-Grazalema, Muntadas (in collabora- 
tion with the social anthropologist Gines Serran Pagan| examines the origins 
of the ancient rite of the bull in Spain; how historical conditions can deflect 
and distort the connotations of a symbol and how this symbol is used as an 
ideological vehicle in two distinctly different social frameworks. This col- 
laborative venture — an interaction of two subjectivities made up of different 
backgrounds, knowledge and perspectives — represents the only possibility 
of approaching objectivity. 

ORGANIC GEOMETRY: SERGI AGUILAR 

Sergi Aguilar's recent sculpture is a synthesis of conflicting premises. His forms 
are at once rectilinear and organic, geometric and fluid. Executed in black 
Belgian marble, their density and weight are manifest; at the same time, their 
scale is intimate and certain configurations tend toward the two-dimensional 
or pictorial. 

Modern Spanish sculpture until the present generation has explored two 
distinct directions. The earliest and probably most indigenous is represented 
by Oteiza (unfortunately little-known in America) and Chillida. It is gestural, 
organic and crudely forceful, and presumably refers to the products and tools 
of the ancient Basque tradition of wrought iron. The second, less well-known 
and perhaps less original, embodies the more recent concepts of arte norma- 
tive), analitico or racionalisto and is exemplified in the sculpture of Andreu 
Alfaro. In the first, the material is significant and dictates the forms; in the 
other, the material is secondary to the abstract concept and image. 

Aguilar's earliest sculptural activity obeyed an abstract geometric aes- 
thetic. Perhaps this formulation appealed to him in the late sixties and early 
seventies as a way of rejecting the image of the avant-garde Spanish sculpture 
promulgated for consumption at home and abroad. Yet Aguilar looked to 
abstraction not as an expression of "rational" premises, but for its formal 
purity. Brancusi was an early influence as a paragon of pure form as well as 
for his attention to the specific properties of materials. The Russian Con- 
structivists were important for analogous reasons. Yet, starting around 1975, 
Aguilar began to examine natural forms — twigs and branches, for example — 
which escape rationalization because we can neither control nor explain their 
vitality. His idiom today is a combination of abstract and organic forces. 

One would be tempted to define Aguilar's recent sculpture as a kind of 
organic Constructivism. But this is an approximation. His respect for ma- 
terials may derive from a Constructivist aesthetic. This consideration is seen 
in the low-lying silhouettes of many of his pieces which express the weight 
and density of his mediums. Further, the two-dimensionality of much of his 
work evokes a planar tradition in sculpture which originates in Cubism and 
Constructivism. The notion of pictonality is heightened by polished surfaces 
which emphasize planes and by drawn incisions and precise flat areas of light 



26 



Andreu Alfaro 
Dawn. 1962 
Iron, i7 3 /4"h. 




and shadow. The concept of a dialogue between closed mass and open space, 
visible in his sculpture, is also Constructivist in its source. Articulated units 
are usually carved from a single block; the immanent presence of their matrix 
imposes a spatial continuum. The surrounding space is part of the work, and 
the fact that elements of certain sculptures may be moved apart, opened or 
closed, allowing light and air to enter, explicitly reinforces these spatial 
concerns. 

Yet stone and marble are not usually identified with the language of 
Constructivism. Although Aguilar respects his materials to a point, he forces 
their potential into unpredictable forms, diverting them from their original 
destiny. Nevertheless, the integrity of the material is not violated. It speaks 
for itself but in a different voice. Thus, a contradiction between natural and 
cultural forces is constantly visible. One might expect these forces to be 
mutually destructive, creating a strangely dissonant formal hybrid. On the 
contrary, each reinforces the particularity of its opposite. 

Much modern sculpture relies on new mediums and materials such as 
plastics, polyurethanes, strident colors, found objects, or attempts to transgress 
the traditional boundaries of art, dissolving mass into void or translating ab- 
stract ideas into concrete forms. Aguilar's sculptures, which are mediated but 
not rational, organic but not expressionist or gestural, the formulation of 
plastic concerns rather than abstract ideas, stand aside from the mainstream 
of contemporary sculpture. 



27 



PINTURA-PINTURA: JORGE TEIXIDOR 

From an American perspective, a Spanish Color-Field painter seems to be 
a contradiction in terms. Where is the texture we associate with Spanish 
painting? Where are the gesture, the aggressive color contrasts, the images 
(abstract or Surreal or blatantly political)? Teixidor was probably aware of 
the Spanish stereotype, and his art, like that of other members of his genera- 
tion, was a conscious or unconscious attempt to break the hold of that image. 

Teixidor belongs to the generation which discovered Pop Art and found 
in it an alternative to native idioms. Although he was never a Pop artist in any 
sense of the term, the formal innovations of the style were important for him, 
providing a less provincial and more concrete starting point for his evolution. 
In Valencia the threat of provincialism was strong. Furthermore, when artists 
did revolt against the excessively academic training of the Valencian Escuela 
des Bellas Artes, they usually pursued one of two directions: azte normative) 
or geometric abstraction, introduced in the rgsos by the groups Parpallo and 
Equipo 57; or figuration, which dominated Teixidor's own generation and was 
particularly aggressive in the circle around Equipo Cronica. 

Teixidor's itinerary is meaningful because it is exemplary for an artist of 
his generation. Turning his back on informalism, his initial impetus came 
from more concrete, less mystical and less specifically native painting styles. 
Yet, whereas Pop Art and geometric abstraction provided formulas for chal- 
lenging the limits of painting, they offered no means for development within 
those limits. So that Teixidor finally returned to a primary dialogue with 
nature, process, color and space. 

The subsequent canvases are based on a plastic vision that is free of the 
mediation of conceptual premises. In the early works of this series, Teixidor 
drew his inspiration from nature — close-up photographs of details from land- 
scape — in order to capture an abstract morphology which he translated with 
a loose brushstroke and an indistinct modulated, milky chromatism. These 
paintings are allover in the American sense; yet the presence of almost in- 
visible horizontal or vertical lines endows them with an implicit man-made 
structure or architecture which removes them from their original naturalistic 
source. These linear tracings, perhaps a holdover from the "constructed" spaces 
of his earlier works, also create an ambiguous spatial milieu: the viewer is 
simultaneously conscious of the physical presence of surface and of illusory 
depth. 

Teixidor's painterliness is not unique in Spain — if it were, his experience 
might be less significant in the context of this exhibition. Older artists have 
been exploring this direction as well: Jose Guerrero, who has lived mainly 
in New York since 1949 and Rafols Casamada of Madrid come to mind. In- 
creased access to information has induced younger artists — for example, the 
Trama group in Barcelona — to attempt to work within the limits of a painterly 
tradition. 



28 



Color-Field painting, although respected abroad, has had fewer disciples 
or outgrowths than other American-based artistic movements. This circum- 
stance presumably stems from the movement's origin in a peculiarly American 
sensibility, untrammelled by tradition and characterized by particularly free 
concepts of space, technique and color. It is a pure painting experience, an 
art-as-art experience, and has no secondary subject matter to reassure the 
viewer. Recent European attempts to expand upon Color-Field painting — for 
example, the French support-surface artists or the above-mentioned Trama 
group — have therefore depended upon a vast theoretical framework and much 
prose to make it palatable to a public initially unsympathetic to its premises. 
Thus Teixidor's experience is in some ways unusual. He came to his personal 
solution through an instinctive need to extricate himself from the intellectual 
games of geometric abstraction and to address the specific issues of pure paint- 
ing. He made his transition by exploring the problematics of Monet, Matisse, 
Rothko, which ultimately led him back to natural light, natural color, natural 
space. He does not rely upon theorizing to make his work acceptable. As 
painting, it must justify itself. 



EGO: ZUSH 

Extreme Catalaneity and acute schizophrenia are the first impressions pro- 
duced by Zush's paintings, drawings and books. Catalan traits are most im- 
mediately evident in the apparent inspiration from the occult, embodied in 
the supernatural, phantasmagoric figures which have been a constant in 
Catalan art since the Middle Ages. We find recent examples of these motifs 
in Miro's "magic-realist" period of 1923-24 and in drawings and paintings by 
Barcelona's Dau al Set group, particularly in the work of Joan Pong and Modest 
Cuixart. It may also be argued that specific leitmotifs — frogs, lizards, snakes, 
snails and bats — derive from Catalan Romanesque bestiaries, and the isolated 
eyes of supernatural vision perhaps recall those found on the wings of medieval 
seraphim. The miniaturization of forms and flat, acidulated hues provoke fur- 
ther reminiscences of Catalan manuscripts. 

Catalaneity is also presumably expressed in the jagged energetic signs of 
Zush's cryptic alphabet. A secret code which can only be deciphered by initi- 
ates, it conjures up associations with the cabala. The emphasis on graphic 
gestures as vehicles of vitality, of metaphysical anxieties and simple pleasures, 
as enigmatic signs of the magical and the real, occurs also in the oeuvre of 
Miro, Tapies, Pone and Cuixart. 

The rich accumulation of these elements, motivated by a sort of horror 
vacui, produces the effect of a schizophrenic art, sophisticated to be sure, but 
close, tight, obsessional and disquieting nonetheless. Schizophrenic drawings 
are an extension of self, without critical distance, objectivity, control, without 
a will to communicate. 



29 



Modest Cuixart 
Drawing for Dau al Set 




Although all of these components are present in Zush's art, one must 
speak here in terms of analogy rather than of direct references. Zush is a 
child of the 1960s. His major influences were Pop culture, drug culture, psyche- 
delic experience. His knowledge of English gave him access to Burroughs' 
world; he understood The Beatles — their music which rocks the senses and 
their lyrics which defy the rational structures of discourse — and he understood 
their sources. He hallucinated, and this revelation of other dimensions of 
human experience, alternate kinds of space and a new world of images, gave 
him another sense of himself and the universe. 

When Zush discovered the poetry and iconography of Dau al Set, these 
forays into the unconscious were already familiar. But they did not go far 
enough. Furthermore, hallucinations were not a means of escape from a 
political situation but from a society in which he felt completely alien. Yet, 
he did not feel threatened by contemporary or Pop culture; on the contrary, 
it was his element. He did not wish to understand the mysteries of the leg- 
endary metaphysical world, but to understand his own cosmic consciousness. 
So he had no reason to look toward traditional mysticism or the art of the 
Middle Ages ; he found his images and their interpretations in his own child- 
hood, his fantasies, his hallucinating subjectivity. 



30 



Zush's real space and his pictorial space are mental space. In the paintings, 
his space can be extremely open, inhabited by floating forms (which in fact 
are intricately articulated like an astronomical constellation). Or it can be 
narrative or sequential. Sometimes it is frontal; sometimes it retains vestiges 
of symmetry. It is never natural, logical, rational, stereometric or perspectival. 
In many of the drawings the space tends to be close, filled by a tightly-knit 
fabric of signs. His art manifests a primitive and childlike relationship to the 
world, a relationship without distance. Although they are not clinically schizo- 
phrenic, these works are indeed obsessional. 

Zush's iconography is centered unashamedly around his person as a focal 
point for the only cosmic order he will ever truly apprehend. His images sig- 
nify friends, feelings, events, fantasies, a private world of definitions, a per- 
sonal mythology. His alphabet and handwriting were invented for his own 
use and pleasure. Drawing fundamentally on his subjective experience, Zush's 
purpose is to mediate the insights he has gained to the world at large. 

So that this art is at once introspective and sociable. One would almost 
be tempted to term it exhibitionist. For the artist delves into his most intimate 
experience and shares it with his audience. The ego is the subject matter, but 
as a microcosm in a world of egos. Zush's enigmatic signs, formulated in a 
clear and articulate visual language, confront us as vivid and evocative images 
of universal desires. 



POST-MODERN PAINTING: PEREZ VILLALTA 

Post-modernism in architecture is superficially described as nostalgic, eclectic 
and decorative. It not only challenges the noble notion of the avant-garde 
(as a looking and moving forward) but also repudiates the conventions of 
seriousness, originality and good taste traditionally identified with high cul- 
ture. To its critics, this architecture is blasphemous, reactionary and deja vu, 
shocking, displeasing, disconcerting. Perez Villalta's painting is amusing, 
ornate, electic and confusing. It is loaded with nostalgic and contradictory 
references — both thematic and stylistic — to other times and places. Its forms 
are distorted, its colors are dissonant. The space defies analysis; the content 
seems at once rhetorical and mundane. Perhaps we may conclude that this is 
an example of post-modern painting. 

Perez Villalta belongs to a generation which has chosen to disdain openly 
and explicitly all the avant-garde purports to honor. Rather than predicating 
the future, he explores the past. He prefers figuration to abstraction and assimi- 
lates kitsch, Art Deco and all forms of popular culture without excusing him- 
self. He dares to be subjective, even autobiographical. He discards social con- 
sciousness. His is a knowing and ironic comment on the fallacies and vanities 
of the avant-garde as we understand it. Yet in so doing, he attempts to reassess 
the possibilities of a traditional pictorial language stripped of all established 



3i 



cliches. And thus his peculiar discourse is an elusive investigation of the very 
codes of painting. 

Perez Villalta's central concern, often highly visible, is the "impossible 
combination," or the fundamental and unalterable contradiction. At the most 
obvious level this is apparent in his adoption of thematic and stylistic material 
from the past which he elaborates in an idiom emphatically of the present. 
It is further seen in the casual juxtapositions of good and bad taste, of modern 
and ancient symbols, of realism and abstraction. In a more general but more 
subtle manner, it is expressed in the extremely deliberate construction of his 
canvases and seemingly irrational space thereby generated. For example, many 
of his paintings, such as In Octu oculi and Ecstasy During the Siesta are com- 
posed according to a rigorous grid system. Yet the disquieting, spatial milieu 
produced triggers an emotional rather than a rational response. 

The artist's themes are subjective. They reenact his real and fantasy life, 
his intellectual, emotional and aesthetic experience. A key theme is the "im- 
possible combination" of the European and African worlds, a contradiction 
fundamental to Spain. This dichotomy is particularly crucial to Perez Villalta's 
own experience because he comes from Tarifa, the southernmost tip of Spain 
near Gibraltar — the gate between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. In this 
part of Spain, the attractions of the rational and the irrational, the abstract and 
the real, classicism and romanticism are equally powerful. 

In the Annunciation or The Meeting, the artist has taken a classic pictorial 
theme and interpreted it according to his own vision. On the left, the man 
(traditionally the angel) enters the scene from the outside. His universe is 
that of reason, creation, the spirit, enhanced by the appropriate symbols: a 
fruit tree, paper and ink, a palette. It is a world of Cartesian clarity, expressed 
by a coherent perspective with infinite and logical transitions, cool muted 
colors, a gray hazy light. The woman's universe on the right is a closed ego- 
centric and introverted sphere, where the acts and symbols relate to her own 
body: a mirror, a piece of fruit and a chess set for her reflection, consumption 
and diversion. The colors are harsh and bright, the depth is limited, finite. The 
two panels are separated by an imaginary space, bounded on either side by 
Avila and Calpe, the pillars of Hercules, the gates to each world. 

The Studio, inspired by Velazquez' las Meninas and an interior by Ver- 
meer, presents the same contradictions, although concentrated in two meta- 
phors of landscape. While no longer dominant, the theme is treated once again 
in In Octu oculi, which refers to a painting by the same name by the seven- 
teenth-century Sevillan painter Valdes Leal. The primary subject is the instant 
of revelation of life's mysteries or the passage from childhood to adolescence. 

Neither Perez Villalta's themes nor his inspiration can be considered par- 
ticularly original. The thematic references are classical; the stylistic allusions 
and many motifs and symbols are also eminently familiar. Yet the images have 
been mixed and reordered as in a kaleidoscope, according to an original spatial 



32 



vision, producing an impression of the fresh and unfamiliar and eliciting an 
unforeseeable emotional response. The impossible combination of realism and 
abstraction occurs here in a post-modern synthesis. 



AN ARCHEOLOGY OF PERCEPTION: CARMEN CALVO 

The city of Valencia is somewhat isolated — geographically, economically and 
culturally — from the main circuits of artistic activity, both in Spain and 
abroad. As noted earlier, the dominant tendencies in this area from the late 
fifties to the late seventies were geometric abstraction and critical realism. 
Miquel Navarro and Carmen Calvo belong to the generation which felt the 
impact of Valencia's Estampa Popular and Equipo Cronica. Although their 
work does not appear on the surface to express social consciousness, perhaps 
it more clearly approximates than any other young Spanish idiom the goal of 
the former avant-garde: an art which, through its opposition to the established 
academies, aspires to change existing social values and inequities. 

Both Calvo and Navarro worked for short periods with Equipo Cronica, 
and this experience surely colored their approach to art. Both have also worked 
in ceramic factories in Valencia, a city famous for its pottery production since 
neolithic times. So that when they abandoned painting to adopt ceramics as 
their expressive medium, their choice was rooted in personal experience and 
convictions. Because manual skills are held in high regard in Valencia — pri- 
marily an agricultural and industrial region — this reinstatement of a craft 
technique should not be interpreted as an anti-art gesture, but rather as a 
viable yet unvalidated alternative. However, in blurring the distinctions be- 
tween fine art and popular craft, they also express their deliberate rejection 
of the artificial laws of the commercial market and a desire to redefine the 
work of art, the artist's activity, his role in society and the art public. 

Thus Calvo's ingenuous landscapes are motivated by a certain social 
consciousness. Her process (of forming, firing, breaking, coloring and sewing 
or gluing clay pieces on the canvas) and her unconventional materials (clay, 
but also chalk, pottery shards, glass and others) are similar to those of the 
craftsman. Despite the importance of the manual labor associated with these 
works, however, her formal references are artistic and cultural. 

A crucial component of Equipo Cronica's critical realism is the decon- 
textualization of formal and thematic material from the consecrated models 
of art history. Similarly, Calvo's overt reference to French Impressionism (seen 
in such works as cat. no. 13) is ironic and critical. She translates the quick, 
short strokes of Impressionist brushwork into handmade and hand-colored 
"strokes" in clay. After atomizing the elements of relief, color, play of light 
(all Impressionist concerns), the artist aligns them like archeological specimens 
on a canvas, thus destroying the mystique of individualism and temperament 
related to Impressionist painting. 



33 



For Calvo's contemporaries, the informalism of the fifties was still the 
official avant-garde model, and she was sensitive to its gestural expression and 
natural materials. Yet, like other younger artists, she felt compelled to order 
and reassess existing cultural materials and to recast them in the vernacular 
of her own time. 

Calvo is fascinated by archeology as a system of classification. Although 
she may be influenced by its example, her own system of classification is 
arbitrary, spurious, dictated by her personal vision, articulated by her personal 
rhythms. Pre-existing modes or motifs of painting are her subject matter; she 
isolates and translates these subjects into concrete artifacts, compiling them 
into anthologies or repertories of plastic signs which project a new image 
and meaning. 

The result is a comment on the painter's means and ends, developed in 
relation to the artist's roots and experience. In its visible contradictions — 
between painting and relief, past reference and present reality, freedom and 
rigorous classification — as well as the more fundamental contradictions — be- 
tween fine art and popular craft, and between formal invention and social 
commitment — Calvo's art is purposely ambiguous as to its ultimate aesthetic 
determination. 



PHYSICAL/ METAPHYSICAL EPISTEMOLOGY: 
MIQUEL NAVARRO 

Miquel Navarro's work is as deliberately equivocal as Calvo's. It too appears 
in some ways naive and ingenuous in relation to most present-day avant-garde 
art. Yet it is infused with the traditional avant-garde's social awareness trans- 
lated into an autonomous cultural statement. In attempting to free his artistic 
language from the connotations of earlier idioms, Navarro hopes to alter the 
artist's relationship to society and ultimately transform society itself. 

The artist, like Calvo, has chosen the ceramic medium. His profound 
understanding of its innate potential has allowed him to develop a highly 
personal style. Navarro's concentrated attention to his native environment 
was inescapable. As we have noted, for artists who cannot travel from Valen- 
cia, information from the outside has always been sparse, gleaned from books, 
periodicals and the broader cultural references of Equipo Cronica. Yet what 
might have been a handicap for some artists was turned by others like Navarro 
to an advantage, permitting them the freedom to invent an individual expres- 
sion with neither a sense of frustration nor self-consciousness. 

Clay, for Navarro, has broad cultural references. The medium is of course 
related to the craft tradition of Valencia, and the manual labor and skill neces- 
sary to work with it are ideologically important. But more significantly, for 
Navarro clay is the primordial medium of building, and indeed most human 



34 



production. The earliest material from which utensils, artifacts and architec- 
ture were shaped, it has been used from the time of prehistoric man to the 
Egyptians to the Arabs (whose presence is still felt in Valencia) to the present. 

Furthermore, clay comes from riverbeds; in its natural state, it is earth 
and water; to be worked it requires air and fire. It is physical in the most real 
and the most philosophical sense. Yet, due to its innate malleability, once 
delivered into human hands, it may be fashioned into anything the human 
mind conceives, from the most abstract schema to the most concrete form 
or a synthesis of the two. Thus, its potential is truly metaphysical. 

It is surely no accident that Navarro's ceramic pieces relate to both paint- 
ing and architecture, the art of illusion and the art of construction. His themes 
— architectures, monuments, landscapes — are a painter's subject matter, and 
are, in fact, conceived pictorially: as an assemblage or dispersal of motifs 
within a closed, set frame. The allusion to painting is visible (although some- 
times deflected by a more explicit reference to architecture, for example, in 
cat. no. 32,) in the wall reliefs which comprise a large portion of his oeuvre. 
Yet his landscaped mesas or tables and the Pyramid obey the same laws and 
operate as paintings to be seen from above. Nonetheless, these pieces are 
extremely different from painting in their process (construction and place- 
ment), physical presence (volume and scale) and color range (mainly the 
natural colors of the materials); all of these properties modify the relationship 
of the work to the viewer as well as the viewer's ultimate experience of 
the work. 

The emphasis in these pieces is graphic, decorative and compositional; 
the structures of the motifs are extremely elementary. The materials — sand, 
plaster, clay, stoneware — correspond naturally to the themes of building or 
landscape. But it is the artist's vision that dictates their assemblage, and the 
intermingling of widely diverse time frames, cultural codes and visual vocab- 
ularies which creates an extremely unsettling yet compelling effect. 

Once again, displacement and re-creation are key concepts. We discover 
archeological remnants of De Chirico, Giacometti, Russian Constructivism, 
Egyptian pyramids, neo-classicist architecture, cacti and bulls' horns within 
one coherent yet elusive context; allusions to nature and culture, matter and 
mind, physics and metaphysics. 

A broad repertory of human history and activity are reflected in these 
fragile, enigmatic forms: the spiritual and the mundane, the occult and the 
obvious, the ancient and the new, symbolism and formalism, sexuality and 
geometry, humor and seriousness, naivete and complexity, the visionary and 
the real, the Arab and the Greek worlds, the pagan and Christian. These are 
not impossible contradictions but a synthesis of human experience. Beginning 
with a common material and a popular craft technique, Navarro has invented 
a formal vocabulary and an epistemology which remain open to multiple 
readings. 



35 



Although the artists in this exhibition were chosen for their intrinsic merits 
alone, upon closer appraisal they seem to represent a cross-section of recent 
trends in Spanish art. Extremely diverse, they share some general and fun- 
damental characteristics: a reasoned decision to work within the conventions 
of their medium — be it painting, sculpture, ceramic, video — extending but 
not violating them ; a commitment to a lived reality as well as to a broader 
cultural framework; a reference to nature as a constant presence as well as 
to artistic conventions; a Surrealist melange of introspection and scepticism; 
an interest in metaphor,- an absence of explicit political content. One also 
sees the trace of regional influences: extreme politicization in Barcelona, 
strong social awareness in Valencia, for example. One can further argue that 
the light of Perez Villalta is that of the south, whereas the palette of Gancedo 
is rooted in northern Castille. As has been suggested, these phenomena derive 
partly from the historically-determined circumstances of cultural and eco- 
nomic isolation. Limiting in one sense, these factors have allowed Spanish 
artists the freedom to be themselves. 

Obviously, if these artists are to be of more than anthropological interest 
to the rest of the world, they must transcend their national boundaries, their 
local styles and preoccupations; they must transcend the limits imposed by 
a particular situation in order to communicate in universal terms. They must 
bridge a cultural gap. We think they do. Whether or not Spanish artists and 
critics agree, viewed from our perspective their message is critical, even sub- 
versive. Beyond the formal and stylistic qualities and differences of each artist, 
the work seen here connotes an opposition and/or indifference to current 
social values and internationally accepted aesthetic standards. Paradoxically, 
this rejection of today's established academies brings us back to the original 
meaning, stance and role of the "avant-garde." 



36 



CATALOGUE 



The documentation for the catalogue was compiled by Blanca Sanchez Perci- 
ano, Madrid, with the help of Karen Cordero, Philip Verre and the artists 
themselves. The exhibitions lists and bibliographies were edited on the basis 
of available material in this country. The text of Pamplona — Grazalema (p. 69) 
was translated from the Spanish by Hardie St. Martin; the remaining artists' 
statements were translated by Lucy Flint, with the exception of Zush's which 
was written in English. The catalogue was edited by Carol Fuerstein and 
Margit Rowell. 

In the checklist entries, measurement for height precedes width. 



37 



SERGI AGUILAR 




Born in Barcelona, 1946 

Studied at Escola Massana and Con- 

servatori de les Arts del Llibre, 

Barcelona 

Made abstract jewelry until 1971- 

72; since then has devoted himself 

entirely to sculpture 

Lives in Barcelona 



I would like to discuss the context that generates my sculptures rather than 
go into details about their forms and meanings. Material and immaterial forms 
exist in physical space. My observation of this space as well as of time and 
nature has led me to intuit that every mass occupies its own peculiar space. 
What we call "affinity" is a coincidence or approximation between things and 
actions which somehow correspond to similar places and positions. When this 
is produced, a harmony is established which helps us identify a term or object. 
This phenomenon cannot be explained, only felt. 

An idea cannot exist by virtue of itself alone, or it would exist in a closed 
circuit. Ideas must exist in relation to other ideas or phenomena. This relation 
is external to the practice of art. If we opt for statements that are exclusively 
rational we run the risk of mechanizing and categorizing the work. This is the 
farthest thing from my mind. On the contrary, the motivations for my work 
are the observation of nature and the use of the imagination. When I use the 
terms "natural" and "nature" I do so not in the sense of stylization, but as a 
point of departure (origin) for the materialization of ideas that I would like to 
execute. Proportion, growth, balance are natural. 

In observing nature, we see moments of great suggestiveness in time and 
space. The present is past and future almost simultaneously. Everything hap- 
pens at a dizzying pace, although occasionally time is slowed or arrested by a 
situation or action. 

We do not attach importance to time. Nonetheless, as we approach an 
event or the unfolding of an action, we perceive it and feel apprehension. 

We are not aware of space, but when we are deprived of a single milli- 
meter, we recognize its importance and feel its absence. 

We have not been taught to look through time. To work with time re- 
quires an attitude with which we are not familiar. If we did, when faced with 
time's passage our vision would be broad enough to see the evolution of things 
and actions both partially and totally. The distance created by time makes 
identification possible. 

I continually rethink my sculptures and often I glance backward to see 
what I could not see when I made them. To perceive the movement produced 
in actions already accomplished. This forward-backward movement produces 
a sum of practical experience, which generates the inspiration for the sculp- 
ture. My discourse attempts to approach the space-time-nature phenomenon 
with respect, paying maximum attention to all dimensions, a task that seems 
to me fundamental in sculpture. 

Place, volume and material to be selected should be interrelated. The in- 
appropriate use of any one of these elements provokes certain displacements, 
a lack of harmony, in which they mav destroy one another. 



38 



SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS 

Instituto Britanico, Barcelona, New 
Forms, June 5-10, 1972 
Galena Juana de Aizpuru, Seville, 
Cinco Artistas Catalanes, October 
1972 

Galeria Adria, Barcelona, MAN-73 
Homenatge Joan Miro. May 1973 
Galeria Trece, Basel, International 
Art Fair, Art 4-73, June 20-25, 1973 
Collegi d'Aparelladors, Barcelona, 
Mostra d'Art Realitat, January 2- 
31, 1974 

Galeria Trece, Paris, FLAC-75, Janu- 
ary 30-February s, 1975 
Galeria J. Mas Zammit, Barcelona, 
Escultores Meditcrrdneos, Tanuary- 
February 1975 

Galeria Fondo de Arte, Madrid, 4 
Escultores Catalanes, May 197s 
Galerias Adria, Trece, Basel, Interna- 
tional Art Fair, Art 6-75, June 18- 
23, 1975 

Galeria Ponce, Mexico City, 23 
Artistas Catalanes de Hoy, June 1975 
Galeria Eude, Barcelona, Dibuixos 
i Obras Grdfica d'Escultors Contem- 
poranis, December 1975 
Galeria Arturo Ramon, Barcelona, 
Escultura de Petit Format. May-June 
1976 

Galeria Trece, Basel, International 
Art Fair, Art 7-76, June r6-2i, 1976 
Fundacio Joan Miro, Barcelona, 
Museo Internacional Resistencia 
Salvador Allende, July-August 1976 
Galeria Trece, Barcelona, Dibuix: 
S. Aguilar, J. L. Pascual. A. Ney, 
July-September 1976 
Fundacio Joan Miro, Barcelona, 
Amnistia, Drets Humans i Art, 
September 27-October 14, 1976 
Galeria Rene Metras, Barcelona, El 
Collage a Catalunya. February- 
March 1978 

Galeria Adria, Barcelona, 5. Aguilar 
X. Francuesa, X. Grau, J. Hernandez 
Pijuan, P. Puiggrbs, April 14-May 6, 
1978. Catalogue 



Staatliche Kunsthalle Berlin, 
Katalanische Kunst des 20. 
lahrhunderts, June 25-August 23, 
1978. Catalogue 

Jahrhunderthalle Hoechst, Frank- 
furt am Main, Katalanische Kunst 
seit 1970, October 4-30, 1978. 
Catalogue 

Galeria Artema, Barcelona, ir 
Escultors Contemporanis a Cata- 
lunya, January 27-March 20, 1979. 
Catalogue 

SELECTED ONE-MAN EXHIBITIONS 

Instituto Britanico, Barcelona, 

Dibujos y Joyas, January 14-27, 1969 

Galerie Trudi Fath, Goppingen, 

Germany, Schmuck, September 4- 

October 1, 19(19 

Llibreria de la Rambla, Tarragona, 

Obiectes joia, September 5-26, 1970 

Galeria Adria, Barcelona, Escultura 

i Dibuix, May rs-June 8, 1974. 

Catalogue 

White Gallery, Lutry-Lausanne, 

Dessins et Sculptures, May 20-June 

30, 1976 

Galeria Trece, Barcelona, Escultures 

1975-77. April 14-May 14, L977. 

Catalogue 

Galeria Trece, Basel, International 

Art Fair, Art 9-78, June 14-79, 1978. 

Catalogue 

Galeria Trece, Barcelona, (Set 

Temps) "Transcurs" rX Fotografies. 

October 3, 1979 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Newspapers and Periodicals 

Alberto del Castillo, "Cronica de 
Barcelona," Goy<i (Madrid), no. 120, 
May 1974, pp. 385-386 
Rafael Santos Torroella, "Sergi 
Aguilar," El Noticiero Universal 
(Barcelona), June 4, 1974 
Daniel Giralt-Miracle, "Sergi 
Aguilar, Destino (Barcelona), no. 
1914, June 8, 1974, P- st 



Enrique Da Cal, "tres exposiciones 
de escultura," Athena (Barcelona), 
no. 4, July 1974, p. 62 
Rosa Maria Subirana, "Incidencia 
del contexto historico, economico 
y social en la evolucion de la escul- 
tura abstracta en Espafia," Estudios 
Pro Arte (Barcelona), no. 4, October- 
November 1975, p. 26 
Josep Iglesias del Marquet, "Sergi 
Aguilar," Diario de Barcelona, April 
16, 1977 

Francesc Miralles and Rosa Queralt, 
"En torno al grabado Catalan de 
posguerra," Estudios Pro Arte (Bar- 
celona), no. 10, April-June 1977, 
pp. 44-67 

Alicia Suarez and Merce Vidal, "La 
mostra de Sergi Aguilar a la galeria 
Trece," Serra D'Or (Barcelona), no. 
212, May 15, 1977, p. 45 
Maria Teresa Blanch, "El humano 
orden geometrico de Sergi Aguilar," 
Batik (Barcelona), no. 34, May 1977, 
pp. 30-31 

Josep Iglesias del Marquet, "Cronica 
de Barcelona," Goya (Madrid), no. 
138, May 1977, pp. 377-378 
Arnau Puig, "Cronica de Exposi- 
ciones," Artes Pldsticas (Barcelona), 
no. 18, June T977, p. 37 
Sergi Aguilar, "Encuesta a la joyeria 
catalana," Batik (Barcelona), no. 36, 
September-October 1977, p. 22 
Victoria Combalia, Alicia Suarez 
and Merce Vidal, "Tot sobre les set- 
manes catalanes a Berlin," Artilugi 
(Barcelona), no. 4, 1978, p. 4 
Maria Teresa Blanch, "El arte 
espanol de 1980, abstraccion y 
naturalismo," Batik (Barcelona), no. 
50, 1979, PP- 5-7 

Books 

Willem Sandberg, ed., "73-74" An 
Annual of New Art and Artists. 
London, 1974, pp. 8-1 1 
Ralph Turner, Contemporary 
Jewelry: A Critical Assessment 7945- 
1975, London, 1975, pp. 73-89, 142- 
143 



39 



foan Ramon Triado, Homcnatge 
dels drtistes Catalans al Centre 
Excursionista de Catalunya, Bar- 
celona, 1976, pp. 56-57 
Jose Marin-Medina, La Escultwa 
Espahola Contempordnea, Madrid, 
1978, pp. 344-345 

Reinhold Reiling, Goldschmiede- 
kunst, Pforzheim, Germany, 1978, 
pp. 52-56 



Horizontal — Three No. 2. 1976 

(Horitzontal — tres No. 2) 

Black Belgian marble, 11% x 37% x 



1/-," 



30 x 96 x 14 cm.' 
Collection the artist 




40 



Horizontal No. 6. 1977 
(Horitzontal No. 6) 
Black Belgian marble, 5V2 x 35% x 
2%" (14 x 91 x 6 cm.) 
Collection J. Suiiol, Barcelona 




41 



Horizontal No. 8. 1977 
(Horitzontal No. S) 
Black Belgian marble, 4% x 29V2 x 
2%" (12 x 75 x 6 cm.) 
Collection the artist 



Two-One. 1978 

(Dues-Una) 

Black Belgian marble, 6% x 12 x 

3V6" (17 x 31 x8cm.) 

Collection the artist 




42 



Two-Three (P). 1978 

(Dos-Tres /P/j 

Black Belgian marble, 4 x n,^ x 

15%" (10 x 59 x 38.5 cm.) 

Collection The Solomon R. 

Guggenheim Museum, New York, 

Anonymous Gift 







43 



Small Piece. 1978 

(Petita Pcca) 

Black Belgian marble, 4 x 5% x 



7' 



(10 x 14.5 x 18.5 cm.) 



Private Collection, Madrid 




Two-Thiee (2). 1978-79 
(Dos-Ttcs [2]) 

Calatorao stone, with base 7% x 
i6Yg x 16%" (20 x 67 x 43 cm.) 
Collection the artist 




44 



Deep Notch No. i. 1979 

(Cran No. 1) 

Black Belgian marble, 5% x 23% x 

38%" (15 x6o\ 97. 5 cm.) 

Lent by Galena Vandres, Madrid 




45 



Two-Three (V). 1979 
(Dos-Ties ]V]) 

Calatorao stone, i6V 2 x 22 x 6 l /g" 
(42 x 56 x 15.5 cm.) 
Collection the artist 

10. 

Positions No. 2. 1979 

(Posicions No. 2) 

Black Belgian marble, 13 x 14% x 

1214" (33 X37.5 X31 cm.) 

Collection the artist 



n. 

Positions No. 3. 1979 

(Posicions No. 3) 

Black Belgian marble, 13x11% x 

n%" (33 x 30 x 30 cm.) 

Collection J. Sufiol, Barcelona 




46 





47 



CARMEN CALVO 




Born in Valencia, 1950 
Studied at Escuela de Artes y 
Oficios, Valencia, iqfa-fis (degree 
in graphic arts: advertising); Escuela 
Superior de Bellas Artes de San 
Carlos, Valencia, 1969-72 
Lives in Valencia 



As Tapies so rightly says, we, in general, keep silent, because from the outset 
we resign ourselves to the impossibility of explaining our work in a few words; 
one would still have to discover many of the things we have incubated through- 
out months and years. Or as Henri Matisse said, the best explanation of his 
style a painter can offer will be found in his canvases themselves. By this I 
mean to say that it is difficult to explain one's work. 

The task of experimentation the painter sets himself, the constant battle 
with his materials, the manipulation of the abandoned materials he attempts 
to recover — all this forms part of my creative process. I paint with the ordinary 
objects of the painter (or those close to my cultural milieu) : pencils, sandpaper, 
colored chalk, canvases, tubes of oil paint, rags. ... Or clay, which is linked 
with my past work in ceramics; white or red clay with which I produce forms 
and order and number them. 

My development is based on the idea of archeology, an idea that fasci- 
nates me: the concept of repetition and recovery of the object. 

In 1 97 1 I traveled to Paris and stayed there for two months to study the 
work of Paul Cezanne and Henri Matisse. I became acquainted with the 
Egyptian art in the Louvre. I was interested in archeology and all that sur- 
rounded it — most of all, the processes of discovering, reconstructing and 
compiling archeological remains of Near Eastern cultures. These elements 
and materials would serve as a source of inspiration for my later works. 

I am aware that definitions are always dangerous,- they tend to reduce a 
concept to a few wqrds, which may become unclear and simplistic. However, 
I believe that it is necessary to provide these clues to the spectator. 

Three aspects in painting interest me: form, color and object. I began 
with painting in oil and acrylic, and with the subject of landscape treated in 
an Impressionist manner. I am still interested in landscape; I use it to examine 
the facture of Impressionism, but do not paint in an Impressionist style. I am 
still concerned with traditional premises: the primacy of the idea of painting 
and the objects of the painter. 

I believe that my work has some European antecedents, but I have con- 
cerned myself with the sources of our native tradition: clay and all the mate- 
rials that are in some way culturally related to the Valencian region. 



48 



GROUP EXHIBITIONS 

Circuit) Universitario de Valencia, 
Nuestro Yo, January 15-31, 1969 
Sala Mateu, Valencia, Paisajes, 
May 1-30, rg69 

Circulo de Bellas Artes de Valencia, 
Bodegones y Paisaies, February 1970 
Caja de Ahorros de Alicante, Valen- 
cia, Paisajes, March 1970 
Galeria Barandarian, Bilboa, Per- 
sonates Iguales, April 1971 
Salon National, Tortosa, Paisajes 
en Barro, July-August 1973 
Sala Atenas, Zaragoza, Paisaje, 
August 1974 

Galenas Punto, Temps, Val i 30, 
Valencia, Els Altres 75 Anys de Pin- 
turn Valenciana, April-July, 1976. 
Traveled in Spain 
Galeria Sen, Madrid, Seis Artistas 
Valencianos, October 28-November 
28, 1977. Catalogue 
Museo Arqueologico, Palacio de la 
Diputacion Provincial de Palencia, 
Palencia, Exposicion International 
de Artes PJdsticas: Homenaje a Jorge 
Manrique. September 1-9, 1979 

ONE-WOMAN EXHIBITIONS 

Galeria Temps, Valencia [with Mi- 

quel Navarro], November 16- 

December 16, 197(1. Catalogue 

Galeria Buades, Madrid, May 20, 

1977. Catalogue 

Galeria Yerba, Murcia, February 16- 

March 16, 1979 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid, Pinturas. 

April 27-May 27, 1979. Catalogue 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Newspapers and Periodicals 

Luis Manez, "Carmen Calvo y Mi- 
quel Navarro," Dos y Dos (Valen- 
cia], no. 27/28, November 28, 1976 
R. Ventura Melia, "Avantguarda i 
arqueologia," AVUI (Barcelona), 
December 12, 1976 



Eduardo Chavarri Andujar, "Dos 
vertientes de la Pintura Valenciana: 
El Maestro Furio y el Tandem Car- 
men Calvo — Miquel Navarro," Las 
Provincias (Valencia), December 21, 
1976, p. 18 

Juan M. Bonet, "Corto viaje a Va- 
lencia y su pintura," El Pais (Ma- 
drid), December 23, 1976 
Jose Garneria, "Galeria Temps," 
Arteguia (Madrid), no. 24, Decem- 
ber 1976, p. 25 

Jose Garneria, "Carmen Calvo y 
Miquel Navarro," Artes Pldsticas 
(Barcelona), no. 14, December 1976, 
P- 48 

Fernando Huici, "Carmen Calvo," 
El Pais (Madrid), June 2, 1977, p. 29 
Fernando Huici, "Seis artistas va- 
lencianos," El Pais (Madrid), No- 
vember 3, 1977, p. 22 
Victoria Combalia, "Una nueva 
generation valenciana. Arqueologia 
y autoreflexion de una practica," 
Batik (Barcelona), no. 45, November 

1978, pp. 18-19 

E. Arlandis, "Aproximacion a la 
obra de Carmen Calvo," Cartelera 
Turia (Valencia), no. 794, April 23, 
1979 

Fernando Huici, "Carmen Calvo, lo 
femenino y el arte," Batik (Barce- 
lona!, no. 49, April-May L979, pp. 
49-50 

Francisco Rivas, "Dos Pintoras Va- 
Iencianas," El Pais (Madrid), May 3, 

1979, P- 34 

Miguel Logrono, "Carmen Calvo, 
entre la arqueologia y la pintura," 
Diario 16 (Madrid), May 16, 1979, 
p. 24 

Manuel Garcia i Garcia, "Notas 
sobre la pintura valenciana de los 
setenta," Batik (Barcelona), no. 50, 
July-August 1979, pp. 43-45 



49 



12. 

Anthology. 1975 

(Recopilacion) 

Red clay on canvas mounted on 

wood panel, 59 x 74%" (150 x 190 

cm. I 

Collection Enrique del Pozo 

Parrado, Madrid 




T^nim 1 ty n*rf 1 rTtimri nimti inrt rt 

nmiumrrwm mimwi rrrnirr rrirr* 

rmn mrr mm WO Tri-rrrrrj fYrrtmrrir. 
yiriHrrrrrrnmim rirnrwrrmwit t »nU 

r^ # m» r *r r fh »*m wwn rtwwi rr n wmita r 

Rl r Pi 5 h v 8 B m I ww h w * ,1 » » in , m \mi 
W ffirnitfnum^MMhffirfriirirvmrimr 



50 



13- 

Anthology (Landscape). 1977 
(Recopilacion jPaisajcl) 
Painted white clay on canvas 
mounted on wood panel, 59 x 74% " 
(150 x 190 cm.) 
Collection The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New York, 
Anonymous Gift 




x wmi$k 








51 



14- 

Anthology Series. 1977 

ISerie Recopilacion) 

Painted ocher clay on canvas 

mounted on wood panel, 59 x 74%" 

(150 x 190 cm.) 

Lent by Galena Vandres, Madrid 




52 



IS- 

Reconstruction Landscape Series. 

1977 

(Scrie Reconstruccion Paisaie) 

Clay on canvas mounted on wood 

panel, 33V2 x 46V2" (85 x 118 cm.) 

Collection J. Sufiol, Barcelona 




53 



i6. 

Anthology of Forms. 1979 

(Recopilacion de foimas) 

White clay on canvas, 51^ x 63%" 

(130 x 162 cm.) 

Private Collection, San Francisco 






' 



- y 



■■ ! — -■ 

■ 



W- . .: ;f/' / 









2 * 



I 



-} 



) 



^ - o jp. -> A ..» Jf* fc» ^ ^ ^ 

/ ^ <!• J 



4 



4 •. "* 






I 



y 



-> 






8L«* »^ 4 ( 

• * •■ 



» 



J 



> • % - 






1 . r 



N 



f ^ 



• 



^ - / 



s o 



> > 









V 



' I 1 ^ ' 



■ 1 " - - 



- 

- 



' I 



-I 



# ■ * { 

f ■ ' • if 









54 



17- 

Landscape Series. 1979 

(Serie Paisajes) 

Red clay on canvas, 33V2 x 33V2" 
(85 x 85 cm.) 
Collection the artist 



W. 






55 



i8. 

Coloied-Chalk Landscape. 1979 
(Paisaje Tizas de Coloies) 
Colored chalks on canvas mounted 
on wood panel, 47I4 X47 ! 4" (120 x 
120 cm.) 
Collection J. Sunol, Barcelona 



1 \ • 


• 
















• 




• 




• 


i 


v • ll« 






- 




• 






• 




• ■ 




















• 












« 




m 


1 1* 




• 






• 








• 




• 




• 


• 1 


• 






• 












• 




«• 








• 






























• 1 
• 






• 
f 






* 






• 


• 




• 




































o» 




• • • 








• 










• 












* * 






































• 










• 




• 




• •€>••*•*■ 


. 






• 








• 




m 




• 






• 


. 








* 










• 




• 




• 










• 


• 








• 


• 




• 




ft 


• 


• 






























• 




• 




• 








^ 


' • - 




• • 


• 




• 


• ! • 




































* 




• 








• • 




m 




• 


■ 


• 






























• 






• 




• 






• 




• 




* 


* 
































<• 






- 




• 








• 




m> 


• 


• 


• 

* 


• 






• 


•• 








• 


• 


t 


m 

• 


• 






• 


• 






• 








• 


w 




• 
* 




• 




* 




>• ■ 


• 






• 










• 


m 


• 




• 
• 




* ■ • 






• 






• 
















• • • 








• 




■ 






• 




• 




• 




(•J y * « 












• 






• 




• 




• 




• ■ • • 1 /• 






mm 












m *r. 




• 






■ 


• •• • 






m 




I 








• 




• 








1 • » 






* 






u 




• • 










• 


'• • 


• 




• 




■ 








■ 




• 




• 




• • 






• 




- 








% 








• 




m m 


.* 






•• 


• 








• 




* 


m 




m ■ -» 








• 








- 


* 




• 




• 




• 






• 






• 






» 




■ 




• 




• 


ft 






• 










• 






• 




. 


* 




• 






■ 




• 




• 








• • 

• 


• 






• 
• 








• 


• 




• 




• 
• 


* 



,m - * •• • • • • 

" • - 



56 



19- 

Colored-Chalk Landscape. 1979 
(Paisaje Tizas de Coloies) 
Colored chalks on canvas, 47VS x 
4714" (120 x 120 cm.] 
Collection Lambert, Brussels 



•».', 'I— t — j _ « . 

* •■■'..'. - ' 

- • - - • • ' • 

1 ? - • 

• » 1 «-_ — 



* I 






s 



' 1 - 



1 



/ 



v. 



JiT. 

• 1 



• 1 



_ 1 



'. 



57 



TERESA GANCEDO 




Born in Leon (Castille), 1937 
Moved to Madrid, 1939; to 
Barcelona, i960 
Studied at Escola Massana, 
Barcelona, 1967-69; Escuela Superior 
de Bellas Artes de San Jorge, 
Barcelona, 1969-73 
Lives in Barcelona 



Reality is the foundation of my plastic language. This reality is not objective, 
but subjective and almost always transformed by the honest trickery that 
recollection infuses into everything that happens to us. 

I would like my works to be seen as fleeting, equivocal representations 
of the world and of life. They are not meant to be critical or literal, but to 
present a reality interwoven with memories of years, of names, of mystery, of 
sorrow, of joys. Memory is also truth and life, another form of blood, in 
the words of a Spanish poet. 

In my current work there are four elements of central interest to me: 
object, space, time and color. 

The object, which I usually make myself, appears in various guises on the 
canvas. Sometimes it is a faithful drawing of the object and sometimes it is 
the object itself. I am attempting to treat and manipulate reality in an am- 
biguous way, making it difficult to establish the boundaries between the rep- 
resented object and the real object; this creates a profoundly tactile feeling. 

Space is created, in the first place, as a cradle for all other elements,- my 
intention is that this space and these elements communicate their identity in 
a continual dialogue, in a bidimensional-tridimensional relationship. 

Color is treated in the most sober manner possible. Only in the object do 
I attempt absolute fidelity of color. Throughout the surface of the painting an 
important role is played by the gray tones, with their gradations, transpar- 
encies, etc. 

Into these elements — objects, space, color — I incorporate time. This is 
shaped by the deterioration of the subject. The images used are always pet- 
rified, volumetric, static. Mobility is represented, nevertheless: it is the mobil- 
ity created by the sequence of images in a space which is more or less defined. 



58 



SELECTED GROOT EXHIBITIONS 

Barcelona, Prcmio international de 
dibuio Inglada Guillot, November 
1970 

Barcelona, X Salon femenino del 
arte actual, October 1971 
Museo de Arte Contemporaneo, 
Madrid, Salon international de 
pintura feminina, June 1973 
Barcelona, 20 Premio de Dibujo San 
Jordi. April 1974 

Fundacio Gulbenkian, Lisbon, X1I1 
Premio international de desenho 
Joan Miro. November 1974. 
Catalogue 

Centre Culture! et Social Municipal, 
Limoges, Evidence/ Apparence, 
May r976 

Galena Ponce, Mexico City, Los 
realismos en Espaiia, 1976 
Centre Culturel et Social Munici- 
pal, Limoges, Paradis perdu: 
Recherche d'identite, April-May 
1977. Catalogue 
Caldas da Rainha, Portugal, JV 
Encontros Internacionais de Arte, 
August 1-12, 1977 

Leon, Spain, IV Bienal del Realismo. 
December t4, 1977-Tanuary 12, 1978 
Galeria Victor Bailo, Zaragoza, 
Ocho pintores catalanas, April 10- 
30, 1978. Catalogue 
Paris, 2>) e Salon de la ieune peinture. 
May 16-June 15, 1978. Catalogue 
Les Gemeaux — Centre d'Action 
Culturelle, Paris (Sceaux), Fievre 
Froide, May 1978. Catalogue 
Palma de Mallorca, Homenaie loan 
Miro. July-August 1978 

SELECTED ONE-WOMAN EXHIBITIONS 

Sala Provincial, Leon, Spain, 
December t972 

Sala de la Cultura de la Caja de 
Ahorros Provincial, Pamplona, 
June-July L973 



Sala Ausias March, Barcelona, 
November 1974 

Galeria Ovidio, Madrid, December 
is, 1 97s -January 8, 1976 
Galeria Val i 30, Valencia, June 2-30, 
r976. Catalogue 

Galeria Ciento, Barcelona, Teresa 
Gancedo — Obra sobre papel, Feb- 
ruary 16-March 12, 1977. Catalogue 
Galeria Vandres, Madrid, Teresa 
Gancedo — Oleos y dibuios, October 
4-November 9, 1977 

Sala Pelaires, Palma de Mallorca, 

Teresa Gancedo — Obra reciente. 

May 24-June 15, 1978 

Sociedade Nacional de Belas Artes, 

Lisbon, July 14-August 10, 1978. 

Catalogue 

Galeria Pepe Rebollo, Zaragoza, 

Teresa Gancedo — Pinturas, February 

S-24, 1979. Catalogue 

Galeria Cop-D'ull, Lerida, Spain, 

Pintura y dibuio, March 9-30, 1979 

Museo de Arte Contemporaneo, 

Seville, Teresa Gancedo: Discurso 

sobre la realidad (Obra realizada 

entre 1976-1979J, May 15-June 9, 

1979. Catalogue 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Newspapers and Periodicals 

Daniel Giralt-Miracle, "Teresa 
Gancedo," AVU1 (Barcelona), Feb- 
ruary 2, 1977 

Teresa Blanch, "La imaginada 
realidad de Teresa Gancedo," Batik 
(Barcelona), no. 31, February 1977, 
pp. 2*5-26 

Ana Moix, "Teresa Gancedo: La 
objetividad, lo real imaginario y lo 
simbolico," Vindication feminista 
(Barcelona), no. ro, April 1, 1977 
M. A. Garcia Vinolas, "Teresa 
Gancedo," Pueblo (Madrid), Octo- 
ber 12, 1977 

Maria Teresa Casanelles, "Teresa 
Gancedo y sus ciclos vitales," Hoja 
del Lunes (Madrid), October 17, 
1977 



Enrique Azcoaga, "Teresa 

Gancedo," Blanco y Negro (Madrid), 

no. 3417, October 26, 1977 

Raul Chavarri, "Teresa Gancedo," 

TG (Madrid), December 1977, pp. 

54-55 

Felix Guisasola, "Teresa Gancedo: 
lo no esencial," Guadalimar 
(Madrid), December 1977, pp. 9^92 

Manuel Barbosa, "Teresa Gancedo 
artista espanhola," Pagina Um 
(Lisbon), February 10, 1978 

Jaime Nicolau, "Iconografia de la 
vida y la muerte," Diario de 
Mallorca. June 2, 1978 
Mariano Planells, "Teresa Gancedo: 
Vision y participacion," Batik 
(Barcelona), no. 42/43, May-June 

1978, P- 65 

Mario de Oliveita, "Teresa Gancedo 
(pintora espanhola) e o realismo 
ecologico," O Pais (Lisbon), August 
4, 1978 

"Exposiciones en 'Pepe Rebollo,' 
'Gambrinus' y Hogar Navarro," 
Amanecer (Zaragoza), February 10, 

1979, P- 5 

A. A., "Galeria Pepe Rebollo: Teresa 
Gancedo," Heraldo de Aragon 
(Zaragoza), February 11, 1979 

Books 

Raul Chavarri, Artistas contempo- 
rdneas en Espana, Madrid, 1976 
Gillo Dorfles, Ultimas tendencias 
del arte de hoy, Barcelona, 1976 
Gloria Moure, "The Specificity and 
Dead-end of Spanish Artistic Crea- 
tion," Art actuel: Skira annuel, 
Geneva, 1979, pp. 142-144 



59 



The Dried Branch. 1977 

(El tronco seco) 

Oil and objects on canvas mounted 

on wood panel, 24% x i8Vs" 

(62.5 x 46 cm.| 

Collection Font Diaz, Barcelona 




60 



The Loved Ones. 1977 

(Los seres queridos) 

Oil and objects on canvas mounted 

on wood panel, 24% x 18^" 

(62.5 x 46 cm.) 

Collection J. Carrillo de Albornoz, 

Granada 




61 



Discourse on Reality. 1978 
fDiscuiso sobre la lealidad) 
Mixed media and objects on canvas, 
44% x 6iYs" (112 x 156 cm.) 
Collection J. Sunol, Barcelona 




62 



23- 

The Wounded Flower. 1979 
(La Florherida) 

Oil and acrylic on canvas, 74% x 
72 Vs" (190 x 184 cm.) 
Collection The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New York, 
Anonymous Gift 






/& 










< » 





■j 



v, 





63 



24a. 

The 'Wreath. 1979 

(La Corona) 

Gouache on board, 24% x 24%" 

[61 x 62 cm.) 

Collection the artist 



24b. 

The Wreath. 1979 

(La Corona) 

Oil on canvas, 51V6 x 76%" 

(130 x 195 cm.) 

Collection the artist 





Iff 



(MBSBHMHM^H 



64 



25- 

Relics I. 1979 

(Reliquias 1) 

Acrylic and oil on canvas, 5i>/8 x 

42 Y>" (130 x 108 cm.) 

Collection the artist 





65 



26. 

Relics 11. 1979 

(ReJiquias 11) 

Acrylic and oil on canvas, 51V6 x 

42 V2" (130 x 108 cm.) 

Collection the artist 




66 



27. 

Another Time, Another Space. 1979 
(Otro tiempo, otro espacioj 
Acrylic and oil on canvas, siVx x 
63%" (!3 ox l62 cm.) 
Collection the artist 




67 



MUNTADAS 



GINES SERRAN PAGAN 




^ ^<i±s 




Born in Barcelona, 1942 
Studied at Universidad de Barce- 
lona, 1959-62; Escuela Tecnica 
Superior Ingenieros Industriales, 
Barcelona, 1963-67 
Moved to United States, 1972 
Since 1977 has worked at Center for 
Advanced Visual Studies, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, 
Cambridge 
Lives in Cambridge and New York 



Born in Ceuta (Spain), 1949 
Studied at New York University, 
x 973"76 (M.A. in Anthropology); 
from 1977 The City University of 
New York (currently Doctoral 
Candidate in Anthropology) 
Lives in New York 



68 



PAMPLONA-GRAZALEMA: 

THE RITUAL OF THE BULL IN SPAIN 

Pamplona-Gzazalema is the result of a series of visual media and anthropolog- 
ical works done from 1975 to 1979. The social sciences and the visual arts are 
combined in an interdisciplinary effort to study the symbolism of the bull in 
Spain. Two feasts of the bull are considered: one celebrated in Pamplona in 
honor of San Fermi'n, the other in Grazalema, to commemorate the day of 
Our Lady of Mount Carmel. 

The Bull, the Church and Spain 

As a nation moves through history, many cultural elements that are important 
at one time gradually lose their significance and disappear. Some symbols die 
along the way, new ones sprout up while other remain permanently. Thus, in 
Spain many symbolically expressive rituals and fiestas have lasted for cen- 
turies. 

The fiesta of the bulls is the most important of these. The strength, cour- 
age and sexual power attributed to the bull have won it a central place in 
Mediterranean mythology. Spain is the only country that has preserved ves- 
tiges of these rites and games in varied forms. And the imprint of the bull has 
been reflected in her literature and art from ancient times to the present day. 

In a country where the Church has always been so influential, the exist- 
ence of fiestas involving the bull side by side with Christian ritual is an 
enormous contradiction. The Church which could not destroy the deeply 
ingrained fiestas was forced to Christianize them and incorporate them into 
the Christian calendar. This way, the local spirit of the people would not vio- 
late its authority. At the same time, the people could hold on to their identity 
but within the structure of the Church. Within the framework of the present- 
day bullfight traces of sacrifices, holocausts and ancient rites linked to the 
cult of the bull are preserved like the ruins of pagan temples under Christian 
basilicas. 

The Virgin's Bull 

In the small hill town of Grazalema a fiesta of the bull has been celebrated 
for centuries: the fiesta is one of the few in Spain that still preserves its orig- 
inal purity. It commemorates the day of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, whose 
image is carried from the church to the accompaniment of hymns and music. 
Men and women hail her as if she were the town beauty, as beautiful as the 
Greek goddess worshipped by the ancient Grazalemans centuries ago. But in 
addition to beauty incarnate Venus is now also Virgin and Mother. The 
vitality of the people's religious feelings is most powerfully expressed in the 
personal relationship with the Virgin, nurtured in these processions and 
public acts, rather than in a dogmatic Church. 



69 



On the day following the procession, a bull with a long rope knotted to 
his horns is run through the streets. From balconies and windows women and 
children look on, while men get close to the animal and run him, trying 
furiously to make him charge. The animal fights for his life, charging wildly; 
people scramble out of his way. Metaphorically, his power is taken over that 
day by every man in town. As man becomes animal, the beast becomes human. 
With strength and courage gone, the bull becomes a tame animal; with this 
symbolic death the fiesta ends. 

In contrast to the religious and moral solidarity that prevails during the 
procession, chaos reigns on the day the bull is run. There are no rules or laws 
that day,- the freedom and the will of the people hold sway. The feast of the 
Virgin celebrates femininity, the bull's celebrates masculinity. She stands for 
motherly love, unity, purity and is part of a world of spiritual dimension. 
But the bull symbolizes sexual vigor and bravery and he belongs to the mate- 
rial life, the physical world of man. 

The Bulls of San Fermin 

Pamplona's bull festival is one of the most widely known in Spain. The San 
Fermin festivities last for a week, and have been celebrated almost without 
interruption since 1591. 

Pamplona has a long bullfighting tradition. Hundreds of years before the 
modern corrida came into being, bulls were run on a rope lead or with their 
horns covered with tow and pitch and set on fire to celebrate special occa- 
sions. Saints' feasts, the building of churches and even canonizations were 
commemorated with bulls. In Pamplona there have been churchmen who 
raised brave bulls or even fought them, a bishop who was president of a 
corrida, and priests who leapt into the ring. Bulls have been run not only in the 
plazas or through the streets but in the churches as well. Priests have run 
bulls and, on one occasion at least, Capuchin nuns ran a wild cow inside 
their convent's walls. 

The most fascinating part of Pamplona's fiesta is the running of the bulls 
through the streets each morning. The city holds its breath. The running lasts 
only a few minutes but while it does, the bulls plow the streets, sowing panic 
and inspiring valor. In the last fifty years, ten people were killed and some 
3,600 wounded. Tourists from all over the world feel the special excitement 
generated by the fiesta, unique in the soul of Spain, that draws everyone to- 
gether into a single body. The music, the shared bota of wine and the general 
rejoicing intermingle in a dramatic dance with passion, danger and the 
specter of death. In the last few years graffiti and political propaganda have 
covered the walls of the houses and overshadowed or hidden the bullfight 
posters and programs. In a budding political society the feast of San Fermin 
has also created room for protest. 



70 



Fiestas dedicated to the bull have endured in Spain because over the years 
they infiltrated her culture in the areas of language, religion, economics, pol- 
itics and social organization, leaving visible traces in the ideological structure. 
These socio-cultural forms embedded in the local culture are precisely what 
keeps the fiesta alive. The central purpose, then, of Pamplona-Giazalema has 
not been to study the visual medium or the fiesta itself, but to relate it to 
society and see how it has worked into the social units and became an integral 
part of the world view and values of the people. 



NOTES PARALLEL TO THE PROJECT 

The project Pamplona-Giazalema is an installation of videotape, film and 
slides, together with a book of texts and images. It is an attempt to approach 
greater objectivity by combining distinct methodologies which give as com- 
plete a vision as possible of the symbolism of the bull and what it represents 
in Spain. 

Over the past five years the visual conception and point of view of this 
project has evolved through personal selection and reduction into two comple- 
mentary presentations which have taken the following form: 

Videotape : a fast medium. Images and sound symbolic and suggestive of 

information as well as audio-visual references. 

Publication: a slow medium. Texts and graphic images which present the 

background information with greater density. 

Installation: 

Two fifteen-minute tapes, one devoted to Pamplona, the other to Grazalema, 
are run simultaneously on separate monitors. The juxtaposed material con- 
trasts the following elements: 

bull and people 

silence and sound 

color (red for Pamplona; green for Grazalema) and black and white 

abstract and realistic images 
The result is a visual, referential and symbolic body of work which is com- 
plemented by the publication. 

Publication: 

Texts and images which place the project in a socio-anthropological frame- 
work that includes references to the historical, economic and political con- 
text; transcriptions of interviews and a conclusion in which the authors 
present a critical assessment of the project and review the premises and 
outcome of an interdisciplinary collaboration. 



71 



Technical data: 

Preparation time: June 1975-February 1980. Field work and filming in Pamp- 
lona and Grazalema in July 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978 and 1979. 
Accumulated visual material: 4 hours of film; 22 hours of videotape; 2,000 
slides. 

Collaboration (field work and post-production help): John Barnett, Daniela 
Tilkin, Manel Perez, Katya Furse, Lala Goma, Lopez Tavanazzi, Eugeni Bonet, 
Mark Abate. 

Post-production work: Film/Video Department, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Cambridge; Massachusetts School of Arts, Boston; Educational 
Video Resources, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
Acknowledgements: Comite Conjunto Hispano Norteamericano, Madrid; 
Center for Advanced Visual Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,- 
Galeria Vandres, Madrid; Spanish Tourist Office, New York, Promocion Artes 
Plasticas e Investigacion Nuevas Formas Expresivas; Ministerio de Cultura. 



72 



MUNTADAS 

SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS 

Sala Lleonart, Barcelona, Machines, 
April 1963. Catalogue 
Barcelona, Premi Joan Miro, 1964, 
1967. Catalogues 

Barcelona, Salo de Maig, 1965, 1966, 
1967. Catalogues 

Buenos Aires, Arte de sistemas 11. 
1972 

Pamplona, Encuentros, 1972. Cat- 
alogue 

Banyoles, Spain, Informacio d'Art 
Concepte. February 1973. Catalogue 
Colegio de Arquitectos, Valencia, 
Cuatro Elementos, May 1973. Trav- 
eled to Galeria ]uana de Aizpuru, 
Seville, lune. Catalogue 
Museu de Art Contemporanea da 
Universidade de Sao Paulo, Pro- 
spective 74. August 1974. Catalogue 
Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Lau- 
sanne, Impact Video An, October 

1974. Catalogue 

Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de 

Paris, Art/Video Confrontation 74, 

November-December 1974. 

Catalogue 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 

Artists Videotapes, January 1975. 

Catalogue 

Museo de Arte Contemporaneo, 

Caracas, Arte de Video, April 1975. 

Catalogue 

Galeria Wspolzesna, Warsaw, 

Sztuka Video I Socjologiczna, June 

1975. Catalogue 

IX Biennale de Paris. October 1975. 

Catalogue 

Venice, Biennale lnternazionalc 

d'Arte. Spagna: Vanguarda Artistica, 

Reaha Sociale, June-October 1976. 

Catalogue 

Kassel, Documenta 6, June-October 

1977. Catalogue 

Graz, Austria, Mediart, October 

1978. Catalogue 



Alberta College of Art Gallery, Cal- 
gary, Videonet, March 1979. 
Catalogue 

The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, Video Viewpoints 1979, Sub- 
jectivity/Objectivity: Private/ 
Public Information, April 1979 
Museum Folkwang Essen, Video- 
wochen Essen '79, November- 
December 1979. Catalogue 

SELECTED ONE-MAN EXHIBITIONS 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid, October 
1971. Catalogue 

Galeria Rene Metras, Madrid, Jan- 
uary 1973 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid, December 
12, 1974-January 3, 1975. Catalogue 
Stefanotti Galery, The Video Dis- 
tribution Inc., New York, April 2-3, 
1975 

Internationaal Cultured Centrum, 
Antwerp, November 13-December 
12, 1976. Catalogue 
Anthology Film Archives, New 
York, February 2S-26, 1977 
Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, 
Bars. April 15-May 15, 1977 
The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, Projects: Video XVIII, May 
4-9, 1978 

Vancouver Art Gallery, March 16- 
April 16, 1979. Catalogue 

SELECTED SPECIAL PROJECTS 

Automation House, New York, 
Confrontations. April 1974. 
Installation 

Galeria Cadaques, Cadaques Canal 
Local. July 1974. Video 
C.A.Y.C, Buenos Aires, The Last 
Ten Minutes (Part I). March 14-20, 
1976. Video 

Venice, Biennale lnternazionalc 
d'Arte: N./S./E./W.. June-October 
1976. Installation 
Galeria Ciento, Barcelona, Barce- 
lona Distrito Uno. October 197(1. 
Video 



Kassel, Documenta 6: The Last Ten 
Minutes (Part 11), June-October 
1977. Installation 

P.S. 1, New York, Yesterday, Today, 
Tomorrow, April-May 1978. 
Installation 

Hayden Gallery, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, Cambridge, 
On Subjectivity, December 21-23, 
26-29, 1978. Book and video 
Boston Film/Video Foundation, 
Between the Lines. February 1979. 
Video 

Espai B5-125, Universitat Auto- 
noma, Barcelona, Dos Colors, No- 
vember 1979. Installation 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

On the artist 

Newspapers and Periodicals 

Alexandre Cirici, "Antonio Mun- 
tadas i Part tactil," Serra D'Or 
(Barcelona), September 1971, pp. 
63-65 

Maria LIuisa Borras, "Panorama de 
Novisimos Catalanes," Destino 
(Barcelona), no. 1791, 1971 
"Muntadas: La Actividad Concept- 
ual," Tropos (Madrid), no. 7/8, 
May 1973, pp. 99-104 
Jose Maria Marti Font, "Cadaques 
Canal Local," Diario de Barcelona, 
August 1974 

Juan M. Bonet, "Los Medios y su 
Uso Alternativo a proposito de 
Muntadas," Solucion (Madrid), 
February 1975 

Guy Dumur, "Contre l'art mar- 
chandise," Le Nouvel Obscrvateur, 
June 1975 

Alexandre Cirici, "Muntadas: Cada- 
ques Canal Local," Phis Moins Cero 
(Genval, Belgium), no. 10, Septem- 
ber 1975 

Bernard Teyssedre, "Le Bal des 
Copieurs," Le Nouvel Observateur, 
September 1975 



73 



Victoria Combalia, "Les avant- 
gardes en Espagne," Art Press 
(Paris), no. 22, January-February 
1976, pp. 26-27 

Francisco Rivas, "Muntadas hacia 
una estrategia de los medios," El 
Pais (Madrid), October 1976 
lose Maria Marti Font, "Alternativa 
a la T.V.," Viejo Topo (Barcelona), 
November 1976 

Dany Bloch, "L'Art comme provo- 
cation," Info Altitudes (Paris), no. 
14, January 1977 

"Last Ten Minutes," Flash An (Mi- 
lan), no. 76/77, July/August 1977, 
p. 41 

Wulf Herzogenrath, "Der latente 
Zundstoff: Video kiinnte das In- 
tendanten — Fernsehen ablcisen," 
Kunst Forum, no. 5, August 1977 
Santiago Amon, "El Ultimo Ex- 
periment de Antonio Muntadas," 
El Pais (Madrid), September 1977 
Gloria Moure, "Interview: Van- 
guardias Artisticas y Realidad 
Semiologica," Destino (Barcelona), 
no. 2112, March 1978 
Victor Ancona, "Antonio Munta- 
das: from Barcelona to Boston," 
Videography, no. s, May 1978, pp. 
S5-S8 

Richard Simmons, "Video Art: 
Spain and Syracuse, N.Y.," Televi- 
sions, no. 4, 1978 
"About Invisible Mechanisms," 
Visions (Boston), no. 2, February 
1979 

Anne Bray and Ferol Breyman, 
"Muntadas: Personal/Public Con- 
versation," Video Guide (Van- 
couver), June 1979 
Jo-Anne Birnie Danzker, "Reading 
'Between the Lines.' " Centerfold 
(Toronto), no. 5, July 1979 

Maria Teresa Blanch, "Muntadas 
i l'alternativa dels mitjans," AVU1 
(Barcelona), October 21, 1979, p. 2 
Alexandre Cirici, "L'environament 
invisible d'Antoni Muntadas." 
Sena D'Or (Barcelona), October 
1979 



Books 

Simon Marchant, Del arte objetual 
al arte conceptual. Madrid, 1972 
Raul Chavarri, La Pintura Espanola 
Actual, Madrid, 1973 
Victoria Combalia, La Poetica de lo 
Neutro. Barcelona, 197s 
William Dyckes, ed., Contemporary 
Spanish Art, New York, 1975, p. 153 
Guy Dorfles, Ultimas tendencias 
del arte de hoy, Barcelona, 1976 
Beryl Korot and Dora Schneider, 
eds., Video Art. New York, 1976 
Achille Bonito Oliva, Europe- 
America: The Different Avant- 
Gardes, Rome, 1976 
Horst Wackerbarth, Kunst und 
Medien. Kassel, 1977 
Art Artist the Media, Graz, 1978 
Kane, ed., Video 80. Rome, 1979 
Gloria Moure, "The Specificity and 
Dead-end of Spanish Artistic Cre- 
ation," Art actuel: Skira annuel. 
Geneva, 1979, pp. 142-144 

By the artist 

Publications 

Actividades 1. Galena Vandres, 
Madrid, 1972 

Actividades ll-Ul. Galeria Vandres, 
Madrid, 1976 

Emisio — Recepio (Postales). Art 
Enlla, 1976 

On Subjectivity. Visible Language 
Workshop and Center for Advanced 
Visual Studies, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, 1978 

September 11. 19^ 4 /September ir. 
t978. Neon de Suro, Palma de 
Mallorca, 1978 

Yesterday /Today /Tomorrow, 
Urban Landscape Series, The Insti- 
tute for Urban Resources Inc.. New 
York, 1971.) 



GINES SERRAN PAGAN 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

By Serran Pagan 

Publications 

"Los factores sociologico y psico- 
logico y el estudio antropologico de 
los simbolos," Arbor (Madrid), no. 
362, 1976, pp. 27-40 
"Notas de Antropologia Simbolica 
en Africa: Poder y estructura de los 
simbolos," Revista Internacional 
de Sociologia (Madrid), nos. 18-20, 
1976, pp. 109-121 

Social Anthropology in Andalousia, 
M.A. Thesis, Department of An- 
thropology, New York University, 
1076 

"El Ritual del Toro en Espana: Al- 
gunos errores de analisis y metodo," 
Revista de Estudio Sociales (Ma- 
drid), no. 20, 1977, pp. 87-99 
"Educacion y Antropologia Social: 
Notas sobre la relation existente 
entre el sistema educativo y los 
organismos que ejercen el poder," 
Arbor (Madrid), nos. 391-392, 1978, 
pp. 65-80 

"Dimensiones politicas del cambio 
social," Revista Internacional de 
Sociologia (Madrid), no. 27, 1978, 
pp. 417-439 

"El Toro de la Virgen v la industria 
textil en Grazalema: Transforma- 
tion economica y cambios en el 
mundo simbolico de un peublo 
andaluz," Revista Espatiola dc In- 
\c\tigaciones Sociologicas (Madridl, 
no. s, 1979, pp. 119-135 

"La fabula de Alcala y la realidad 
historica en Grazalema: Replantca- 
miento del primer estudio de An- 
tropologia Social en Espana," 
Revista Espanola de Investigaciones 
Socioldgicas (Madrid), 1979 
"Cultura local e ideologia politica: 
Anarquismo v Guerra Civil en 
Grazalema," Arbor (Madridl. urn 



74 



Lectures and Presentations 

Galena Vandres, Madrid, "Intro- 
duccion al Proyecto Pamplona- 
Grazalema," 1977 
Universidad de Sevilla, "Antro- 
pologia en Grazalema," 1977 
Ci'rculo Cultural, Casa de Espana, 
New York, "Simbolismo del toro 
en Espana," 1978 

The City University of New York, 
"The Bull of the Virgin and the 
Textile Industry of Grazalema," 
1978 



28. 

Pamplona-Grazalema. 1975-80 
Installation: videotape, film, slides 
and related material 

Publication: texts, photographs and 
graphics 



75 



I 




76 




Grazalema y su Toro 



L ' i t.. .... M I l.lll 








77 




78 




L 



■as-*- — "*- 



79 





r*~*m £JB?r*\"~?P" 









80 




egin 

Sanfermines rotoj 

it 



V''.' 







8l 



MIQUEL NAVARRO 




My art consists, fundamentally, in constructing: I construct objects and 
spaces (environments, architectures and sculptures). My intention is to confer 
on my work connotations that are atemporal, rational, historical, biographical. 
The work is executed primarily in clay, although it could include any kind of 
materials. Clay plays a major role because of its connections with the cultural 
and industrial beginnings of our civilization. I would also like to add that my 
work is a philosophical and therefore poetic investigation of the image itself. 



.ffR 



; 



. - ' 



' < 



Bom in Mislata (Valencia), 1945 
Studied at Escuela Superior de Bel- 
las Artes de San Carlos, Valencia 
Began his career as a painter; since 
1972 has devoted himself entirely 
to sculpture 
Lives in Mislata 



82 



SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS 

Circulo Universitario de Valencia, 
Nucstro Yo. January 15-31, 1969 
Galeria Val i 10, Valencia, Once 
Pintores, April is, 1972 
Centro de Arte M 1 1, Seville, Pintura 
Espanola Actual. June 1974 
Galerias Punto, Temps, Val i 30, 
Valencia, EJs Altres 75 Anys de Pin- 
tura Valenciana, April-July 1976. 
Traveled in Spain 
Galeria Ponce, Madrid, Cinco Ccr- 
amistas, January-February 1977. 
Catalogue 

Caja de Ahorros de Alicante y Mur- 
cia, Alicante, Alaminos, Alcolea. 
Criado, Lootz, Navarro. Navarro, 
Baldweg. Serrano. Utray. Valcarcl. 
Medina. March 1977. Catalogue 
Galeria Sen, Madrid, Seis Artistas 
Valencianos, October 28-November 
22, 1977 

Staatliche Kunsthalle Berlin, Kata- 
lanische Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts, 
June 25-August 23, 1978. Catalogue 
Galeria Juana de Aizpuru, Seville, 
Hornenaje a Joseph Cornell. Decem- 
ber 20, 1978-January 15, 1979 

ONE-MAN EXHIBITIONS 

Galeria Tassili, Oviedo [with Ra- 
mirez Blanco], 1972 
Sala de Arte de la Caja de Ahorros 
Municipal de Pamplona (with 
Molina Ciges], May 14-22, 1973 
Galeria Val i 30, Valencia [with Ra- 
mirez Blanco], Tune 12, 1973 
Colegio de Arquitectos de Valencia 
y Murcia, Valencia, La Ciudad, No- 
vember 18-December 3, 1974 
Galeria Buades, Madrid, La Ciudad, 
March 17. 1975. Catalogue 
Galeria Temps, Valencia [with Car- 
men Calvo], November rfi-Decem- 
ber id, 197(1. Catalogue 



Galeria Buades, Madrid, February 
22, r977. Catalogue 
Galeria Juana de Aizpuru, Seville, 
November 22-December 24, 1977 
Galeria Vandres, Madrid, Novem- 
ber 15-December 15, 1979- Catalogue 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Newspapers and Periodicals 

Trinidad Simo, "Miquel Navarro y 
la Ciudad Fantastica," Las Provin- 
cias (Valencia), November 24, 1974 
Jose Luis Segui, "Miquel Navarro en 
el Colegio de Arquitectos," Record 
(Valencia), November 1974 
F. Samaniego, "Miquel Navarro y su 
replanteamiento de la Escultura," 
Informaciones (Madrid), March 31, 
1975, p. 16 

Jose Castro Arines, "Dos Nuevas 
Ciudades," Informaciones (Madrid), 
April 3, 1975, p. 14 
Mercedes Lazo, "Al filo de la Cer- 
amica," Cambio 16 (Madrid], no. 
t76, April 2r, 1975, p. 97 
Luis Mafiez, "Carmen Calvo y 
Miquel Navarro," Dos y Dos (Valen- 
cia), no. 27/28, November 28, 1976 
Melia R. Ventura, "Avantguarda i 
argueologia," AVUI (Barcelona), 
December 12, 197(1 
Eduardo Chavarri Andujar, "Dos 
Vertientes de la Pintura Valenciana: 
El Maestro Furio y el Tandem Car- 
men Calvo — Miquel Navarro," Las 
Provincias (Valencia), December 21, 
1976 

Juan M. Bonet, "Corto viaje a Va- 
lencia y a su pintura," El Pais (Ma- 
drid), December 23, 1976 
Jose Garneria, "Carmen Calvo y 
Miquel Navarro," Artes Pldsticas 
(Barcelona), no. 14, December 1976, 
p. 48 

Santiago Amon, "Miquel Navarro," 
El Pais (Madrid), February 24, 1977, 
p. 22 



Eduardo Alaminos, "Miquel Nav- 
arro," Artes Pldsticas (Barcelona), 
no. irt, March-April, 1977, pp. 71-72 
Fernando Huici, "Seis artistas valen- 
cianos," El Pais (Madrid), Novem- 
ber 3, r977, p. 26 
Victoria Combalia, "Una nueva 
generation valenciana. Arqueologfa 
y autoreflexion de una pratica," 
Batik (Barcelona), no. 45, November 
1978, pp. i8-t9 

Victoria Combalia, Alicia Suarez 
and Merce Vidal, "Tot sobre les set- 
manes catalanes a Berlin," Artilugi 
(Barcelona), no. 4, 1978, pp. 1-4 
Manuel Garcia i Garcia, "Notas 
sobre la pintura valenciana de los 
setenta," Batik (Barcelona), no. 50, 
July-August 1979, pp. 43-45 
Antonio Bonet Correa, "Prodigos y 
maravillas de Miquel Navarro," 
Artequia (Madrid), no. 51, Novem- 
ber 30, r979, pp. r8-i9 

Book 

Manuel Mas, ed., Gran Enciclopedia 
de la Region Valenciana. Valencia, 
1972, vol. VII, p. 303 



83 



29- 

Cylinder. 1974-77 

(Cilindro) 

Plaster and stoneware, 9% x 17V2 x 

15-%" (15 X44.5 X40cm.) 

Collection the artist 




84 



30. 

Construction. 1976-77 

(Construction) 

Plaster, terra-cotta and stoneware, 

14.1/2 x 17V2 x 15%" (37 x 44.5 x 

40 cm.) 

Collection the artist 




85 



31- 

Chimney. 1978-79 

(Chimenea) 

Stoneware and electrical apparatus, 

39 3 /sX 39-y 8 xi5%" (100 x 100x40 

cm.) 

Private Collection, Madrid 




8fi 



3*. 

Chapel and Cosmos. 1978 

(Capilla y cosmos) 

Stoneware and terra-cotta mounted 

on wood panel, 43V2 x 31V2 x 2V2" 

(nox 80 x 6.5 cm.) 

Private Collection, Paris 




87 








I..;..: 1 





33- 

Pyramid. 1977-79 

(Pyramide) 

Stoneware, terra-cotta and sand, 

24% x 237 x 106V2" (63 x 600 x 270 

cm. I 

Collection the artist 



34- 

Prickly Pear. 1979 

(Figa Palera) 

Terra-cotta mounted on wood 

panel, 59 * 4i% x 3V2" (15° x 105 x 

9 cm.) 

Collection the artist 



35- 

Hieroglyphic. 1979 

(leroglifico) 

Terra-cotta mounted on wood 

panel, 59x59x2%" (150 x 150 x 

7 cm.) 

Collection the artist 



\ 






90 



s^i 



91 



36. 

Ball-tipped Horns. 1979 

(Bou embolat) 

Terra-cotta mounted on wood 

panel, 59 X4i% x 3%" (150 x 105 x 

10 cm.) 

Collection J. Sufiol, Barcelona 

37- 

Beginning 1. 1979 

(Oiigen 1) 

Terra-cotta mounted on wood 

panel, S9 x 59 x iVe," (150 x 150 x 

8 cm.) 

Collection the artist 







v ¥ 




92 



1 



93 




44 



38. 

Beginning 2. 1979 

(Origen 2) 

Terra-cotta mounted on wood 

panel, 59 x 4i 3 / 8 x 2%" (150 x 105 x 

7 cm.) 

Collection Lambert, Brussels 

39- 

Cactus. 1979 

Stoneware, terra-cotta and sand, 

ioVS x 19% x 19%" (26 x 50 x 50 

cm.] 

Collection the artist 




40. 

Cosmos. 1979 

Stoneware, terra-cotta and black 

sand, lYs x 19% x r 9% " (8.5 x 50 x 

50 cm.) 

Collection the artist 




95 



GUILLERMO PEREZ VILLALTA 




Born in Tarifa, 1948 
Self-taught as a painter; began 
painting in 1965 
Studied architecture from 1966 
Lives in Madrid 



The act of artistic creation is, for me, completely fused with my own life which 
is, without a doubt, my only oeuvre. What I see, where I am, my reading, music 
and travels form part of it. I do not attempt to clarify anything. Chaos itself, 
confusion or contradiction are for me fundamental. Therefore all possibilities 
overlap and interweave in my work: polystylism is my technique. Abstraction, 
mannerism, the baroque, and even pompier art, can serve as an Ariadne's 
thread for this labyrinth. It is only a matter of letting time pass. 



SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS 

Lunds Konsthall, Lund, Sweden, 
Spanskt. November 10-December 9, 
1973 

Galeria Buades, Madrid, Exposition 
Inaugural Galeria Buades, Novem- 
ber 1973 

Galeria Buades, Madrid, Sesiones de 
Trabajo: El Taller/La Pintura/El 
Museo. February 6-19, 1974 
Casa Damas, Seville, Siete Pintores, 
March T974 

Centro de Arte M n, Seville, Pin- 
tura Espanola Actual, June 1974 
Museo Provincial, Cadiz, Arte 
Cadiz, June 1974 

Galeria Juana de Aizpuru, Seville, 
A los 50 alios del Surrealismo, Jan- 
uary 9-31, 1975 

Casa Damas, Seville, El Cepillo, 
March-April 1975 
Galeria Vandres, Madrid, Vandres 
1970-1975, December 11, I97s-Jan- 
uary 10, 1976 

Barcelona, Arte-Expo. November 
6-14, 1976 

Galeria El Coleccionista, Madrid, 
Siete Pintores en torno a la Ciudad. 
November 1976 

Provincial Museum of Modern Art, 
Hyogo, Japan, Exposition de Pintura 
Espanola dcsde el Renacimiento 
hasta nuestros Dias, 1976. Traveled 
to Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
Tokyo,- Kitakyushu Municipal Mu- 
seum of Art 



Galeria Laietana, Barcelona, El Mar 
y la Pintura, May 1978 
Galeria Ponce, Madrid, Pintores 
Marginales, June 2-30, 1978 
Galeria Juana de Aizpuru, Seville, 
Homenaje a Joseph Cornell. De- 
cember 20, 1978-January 15, 1979 
Galeria Ovidio, Madrid, El Lapiz 
senala al Asesino. March 1979 
Galeria Estampa, Madrid, Interiores, 
June 1979 

Galeria Ruiz Castillo, Madrid, Obra 
sobre papel, June 1979 
Galeria Juana de Aizpuru, Seville, 
Dibujos de Artistas Espanoles Con- 
tempordneos, July-September 1979 
Galeria Juana Mordo, Madrid, 19X0, 
October 10-November 18, 1979 

ONE-MAN EXHIBITIONS 

Galeria Amadis, Madrid, January 8- 

20, 1972. Catalogue 

Galeria Trajano, Seville, Relatione^ 

entre Imdgenes y Algunos Orna- 

mentos. April 8, 1972 

Galeria La Mandragora, Malaga, 

October 27-November i<;, 1972 

Galeria Daniel, Madrid, March 2- 

24. 1973 

Galeria Juana de Aizpuru, Seville, 

November 27-December 18, 1973 

Galeria Buades. Madrid, March 16- 
April 6, 1974 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid, April 27- 
May 22, 1976. Catalogue 



96 



Galeria Buades, Madrid [with 
Chema Cobo], March 22-April 17, 
1977. Catalogue 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid, October 
g-November 10, 1979. Catalogue 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Newspapers and Periodicals 

Juan de Hix [Juan M. Bonet], "Las 
Mitologi as Diversas de Perez 
Villalta," El Correo de Andalucia 
(Seville), April 22, 1972, p. 17 
"Guillermo Perez Villalta en la Sala 
Mandragora," El Sur (Malaga), No- 
vember 17, 1972, pp. 12-17 
Carlos Marrero, "Guillermo Perez 
Villalta," Bellas Artes (Madrid), no. 
33, May 1974, pp. 50-51 
Juan Pedro Quinoneros, "En busca 
de un Nuevo Arte Mediterraneo," 
Informaciones (Madrid), May 11, 
1976 

Juan M. Bonet, "Perez Villalta, en 
una posible generacion," El Pais 
(Madrid), May 16, 1976, p. 23 
Francisco Rivas, "Perez Villalta: 
unas Nuevas 'Senoritas de Avig- 
non'?" Batik (Barcelona), May 1976, 
pp. 16-17 

Jose Marin-Medina, "Perez Villalta: 
de la libertad a voluntad de poder," 
Gazeta del Arte (Madrid), no. 79, 
June 6, 1976, pp. 16-17 
Eduardo Alaminos, "Guillermo Pe- 
rez Villalta: ;un trfptico, un esce- 
nario, un retrato?," Artes Pldsticas 
(Barcelona), no. 9, June 1976, pp. 25- 
27 

Fernando Savater, "Discretion y 
prodigio en Guillermo Perez Vil- 
lalta," Ozono (Madrid), no. 10, June 
1976, p. 59 

Juan M. Bonet, "Chema Cobo y G. 
Perez Villalta," EI Pais (Madrid), 
April 7, 1977, p. 17 
Juan Antonio Aguirre, "1967-77 
Primera Parte," Bellas Artes (Ma- 
drid), no. 56, April 1977, pp. 50-51 



Mariano Navarro, "Imagen pu- 

blica/imagenes privadas," Ozono 

(Madrid), no. 20, May 1977, pp. 

46-48 

Fernando Huici, "En el Lugar del 

Recuerdo," Zoom (Madrid), no. 6, 

June 1977 

Fernando Huici, "Guillermo Perez 
Villalta," El Pais (Madrid), October 
n, 1979, P- 27 

Miguel Logrono, "Fray Angelico, 
Perez Villalta," Diario 16 (Madrid), 
October 17, 1979 

Santos Amestoy, "Perez Villalta: 
salutation al optimista," Arteguia 
(Madrid), no. 50, October 30, t979, 
pp. 29-30 

Miguel Fernandez-Braso, "Perez 
Villalta: el nuevo realismo espa- 
nol," Guadalimar (Madrid), no. 45, 
October 1979, pp. 48-51 
Felix Guisasola, "La figuration hoy: 
Perez Villalta," Sdbado Grdfico 
(Madrid), November 7, 1979, p. 47 
Maria Teresa Blanch, "G. Perez 
Villalta, revision y audacia," Batik 
(Barcelona), no. 51, November 1979, 
pp. 64-65 

Books 

Raul Chivarri, La Pintura Espahola 
Actual, Madrid, 1973, p. 415 
Simon Marchan Fiz, Del arte ob- 
jectual al arte conceptual 1960-1974, 
Madrid, 1974, p. 337 
V. Bozal and T. Llorens, eds., Es- 
pana. Vanguardia artistica y reali- 
dad social: 1936-1976, 1976, pp. 
182-184 



97 




§Jkmo 9am. VMa 



98 



41- 

Sun Entering a Drafty Room. 1978 

(Sol entiando en una habitation 

con coirientes de aiie) 

Acrylic on canvas, 55% x 43 \4 " 

(140 x no cm.) 

Lent by Galena Vandres, Madrid 

42. 

Distance is Foigetf ulness. 1978 

(La Distancia es el olvido) 

Acrylic on canvas, 55V6 x 4314" 

(140 x rro cm.] 

Lent by Galena Vandres, Madrid 




99 



43- 

The Annunciation or The Meeting. 

1978 

(La Anunciacion o El Encuentio) 

Acrylic on canvas, 3 panels, 39% x 

39%" (roo x 100 cm.) ; 39% x 7%" 

(100x20 cm.) ; 39% x 39y8" (100 x 

100 cm.) 

Private Collection, Madrid 




44- 

The Studio. 1979 

(El Taller) 

Acrylic on canvas, 70% x 70%" 

(180 x 180 cm.) 

Collection J. Sunol, Barcelona 



45- 

In Octu oculi. 1979 

Acrylic on canvas, 55% x 70%" 

(140 x 180 cm.) 

Collection the artist 




103 



4 6. 

Ecstasy During the Siesta. 1979 

(Extasis en la siesta) 

Acrylic on canvas, 39% x 39%" 

(100 x 100 cm.) 

Collection J. Sunol, Barcelona 




104 



los 



JORGE TEIXIDOR 



Born in Valencia, 1941 

Studied at Escuela Superior de Bellas 

Artes de San Carlos, Valencia 

1959-64 

Juan March Foundation Grant to 

work in New York, 1979-80 

Lives in Valencia 




106 



I began the white series of 1977 for reasons of method. I had begun to sense 
too much facility in my use of color, which I wanted to avoid. As I had hoped 
but not expected, the result was an affirmation of the pictorial act. The can- 
vases became limit-paintings, as the emphasis shifted from the idea of a par- 
ticular work to the act of painting itself. The process of execution conveyed 
and respected pictorialism in its own language. In a deliberate way I worked 
as much on the absence of color as on the minimal and concise formal space 
in which it acted. Because each painting evolved from the previous one and 
forecast the next, the series had a unified appearance. 

The series of white paintings ended for the same reasons that it began. 
I took up color again, or more precisely, I introduced scales of colors. The se- 
lection of each scale was not so important as the manner in which I worked 
within it. The horizontal bands across the width of the canvas responded to 
an anonymous method, which could not be modified — or could only be 
minimally modified — by action. At the same time, once the overall color was 
chosen for these virtually monochrome pictures, there were still slight dif- 
ferences in value and contrast. The use of yellow in the series was deliberate. 
Undoubtedly, every color has a connotative character, and it is commonly 
held that there are certain psychoanalytic or cultural reasons for this. Thus 
it is said that green represents hope and that red represents passion and even 
the political ideology of the left. My choice of yellow was not motivated by 
ideological considerations or popular beliefs. Cultural connections, however, 
could be deduced from the series (as in some of the pictures based on the 
Mimosa of Bonnard), as well as psychological interpretations. The use of 
yellow was important to me in that it represented my decision to accept color 
again after its absence in the white series. Also, yellow is different from other 
colors because of its relative neutrality. This color was sometimes replaced by 
a scale of violets. 

My interest in American abstract painting of the last three decades con- 
tinued throughout these last two series. Occasionally there has even been a 
formal similarity. The attitude toward the act of painting, my recognition of 
the consequences of this act, the theoretical reduction and the supremacy of 
color as a specific language have been (in my own interpretation of the phe- 
nomenon and in a cultural context) the foundations on which I have been 
building my formulations for the last five years. 



107 



SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS 

Galeria Edurne, Madrid, Nueva 
Generation, 1967 
Galeria Eurocasa, Madrid, Antes 
del Arte, 1968 

Colegio de Arquitectos, Bilboa, 
Mente IV, 1969 

Galeria AS, Barcelona, Antes del 
Arte, 1969 

Galeria La Pasarella, Seville, Antes 
del Arte: Serie Matemdticas, 1970 
Galeria Juana de Aizpuru, Seville, 
Homenaje a Marcel Duchamp, 1971 
Granollers, Spain, Arte /oven, 1971 
Museo de Arte Contemporaneo, 
Seville, Arte valenciano actual, 1972 
Sala Gaspar, Barcelona, Homenaie a 
Joan Miro, 1973 

Lunds Konsthall, Lund, Sweden, 
Spanskt, November 10-December 9, 
1973 

Galeria Buades, Madrid, ro Abstrac- 
ters, July 1975. Catalogue 
Galeria Ponce, Mexico City, 22 
Artistas Catalanes, r97s 
Galeria Durango y Zaragoza, Val- 
ladolid, Spain, Broto, Grau, Leon, 
Teixidor y Tena, February 3-14, 1976 
Galerias Punto, Temps. Val i 30, 
Valencia, Els Altres 75 Anys de Pin- 
tura Valenciana, April-July 1976. 
Traveled in Spain 
Venice, Biennale Internazionale 
d'Arte, Spagna: Vanguarda Artistica, 
Realta Sociale. June-October 1976. 
Catalogue 

Fundacio Joan Miro, Barcelona, Pin- 
tura I, 1976 

Staatliche Kunsthalle Berlin, Kata- 
lanische Kunst des 20. lahrhunderts, 
June 2s-August 23, T978. Catalogue 
Galeria Juana de Aizpuru, Seville, 
Homenaje a Cornell. December 20, 
1978-January 15, 1979 
Musee d'Art et d'Industries, Saint- 
Etienne, France, Impact 3, 1978 
Centro Cultural de los EE. UU., 
Madrid. Pintura abstracta, T979 



SELECTED ONE-MAN EXHIBITIONS 

Sala Mateu, Valencia, February 1966 
Galeria Edurne, Madrid, March 
1968. Catalogue 

Galeria Daniel, Madrid, November 
rr-December 4, 1970 
Galeria Grises, Bilboa, 1970 
Galeria Val i 30, Valencia, March- 
April 1971 

Galeria Juana de Aizpuru, Seville, 
October 1971 

Galeria Honda, Cuenca, 1971 
Galeria Sen, Madrid, October 3-30, 
1972 

Galeria Atenas, Zaragoza, 1972 
Galeria Val i 30, Valencia, 1973 
Galeria Temps, Valencia, September 
24-October 20, 1974 
Galeria Barbie, Barcelona, March- 
April 1975. Catalogue 
Galeria Dach, Bilboa, October 15- 
November 7, 1975 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid, November 
4-29, 1975 

Galeria Rua, Santander, Spain, 1975 
Galeria Juana de Aizpuru, Seville, 
January 12-31, 1977 
Galeria Vandres, Madrid, Novem- 
ber-December 1977 
Galeria Viciana, Valencia, Novem- 
ber 22-December 1978. Catalogue 
Galeria loan Prats, Barcelona, Jordi 
Teixidor: Pinturas r<)i6-r^jg, May 
1 5, 1979- Catalogue 
Galeria Sa Pleta Freda, Son Servera, 
July 14-August 3, 1979 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Newspapers and Periodicals 
Raul Chavarri, Tres Comentarios 
sobre Arte," Cuadernos Hispano- 
americanos, no. 230, 1969, pp. 
454-457 

Juan Antonio Aguirre, "J. Teixidor: 
Desde 'las puertas' a las 'Aperspec- 
tivas,'" El Correo de Andalucia (Se- 
ville), December 3, 1970, p. 19 



Allanza, "Conversaciones con Teixi- 
dor," El Correo de Andalucia (Se- 
ville), December 3, 1970, p. 19 
Juan Hix (Juan M. Bonet] and Fran- 
cisco Jordan [F. Rivas), Conversa- 
cion con Jorge Teixidor," El Correo 
de Andalucia (Seville), October 9, 
i97i,p. 13 

Ricardo Bellevese, "Jordi Teixidor: 
Reflexion en colores, sobre el len- 
guaje," Las Provincias (Valencia), 
September 25, 1974 
Joaquin Dols, "Jordi Teixidor en 
Galeria Barbie," Galeria (Barcelona), 
no. 5, April 1975, pp. 61-62 
Daniel Giralt-Miracle, "Jordi Teixi- 
dor: De la estructura racional a la 
estructura natural," Destino (Barce- 
lona!, no. 1957, April 1975, pp. 34-35 
Daniel Giralt-Miracle, "Naturaleza 
y Artificio en la Obra de Jordi Teixi- 
dor," Batik (Barcelona), no. 14, April 
1975, pp. 14-15 

Trinidad Simo, "Jorge Teixidor. La 
Soledad y la Esperanza: El Paso hacia 
la poesia lirica/'Gaierfa (Barcelona), 
no. 8, July-August 1975, pp. n-13 
Damaso Santos Amestoy, "Jordi 
Teixidor," Galeria (Barcelona), no. 
n, December 11, 1975, p. 34 
Juan M. Bonet, "Ilusiones de ten- 
dencia. Pintura I en la Fundacio 
Miro de Barcelona," El Pais 
(Madrid!, November 7, 1976, p. 20 
Ramon Torres Martin, "Monis 
Mora, Teixidor y Manuel Sanchez," 
El Correo de Andalucia (Seville), 
January 19, 1977, p. r3 
Francisco Rivas, "Teixidor," El Pais 
(Madrid), March 3, 1977, p. 24 
Santiago Amon, "Teixidor: relation 
y evocation de la luz," El Pais 
(Madrid), November 24, 1977, p. 28 
Fernando Huici, "lordi Teixidor en 
el bianco," Batik (Barcelona), no. 37, 
November 1977, p. 41 
Pancho Ortuna and Francisco Rivas, 
"Conversation con Jordi Teixidor," 
Arteguia (Madrid), no. 32, December 
1977, P- 50 



108 



"Teixidor," Guadalimar (Madrid), 
no. 27, December 1977, p. 90 
Manuel Garcia, "EI ritual de Jorge 
Teixidor," Valencia Semanal 
(Valencia), December 17, 1978, p. 37 
Hilton Kramer, "Painters and 
Politics in the New Spain," The 
New York Times, June 3, 1979, pp. 
D 1, D 27. Reprinted as "Contrasts 
in Barcelona: Two Promising Paint- 
ers," International Herald Tribune 
(London), June 16-17, 1979, P- 9 
Aurora Garcia, "Jordi Teixidor: una 
poetica del silencio," Batik 
(Barcelona), no. 50, June 1979, pp. 
50-51 

Javier Rubio Navarro, "Jordi Teixi- 
dor y Geraldo Delgado, en Barce- 
lona," El Pais (Madrid), July 5, 1979, 
p. 29 

Gloria Moure, "Jordi Teixidor: 
autonomia del lenguaje pictorico," 
Cimal (Gandia), no. 4, July-August 
1979, pp. 48-52 

Books 

Juan Antonio Aguirre, Arte Ultimo, 

Madrid, 1969, pp. 49-53 

Manuel Mas, ed., Gran Enciclopedia 

de la Region Valenciana, Valencia, 

1972, vol. II, p. 188 

William Dyckes, ed., Contemporary 

Spanish Art. New York, r975, pp. 

54-55, IO4, T27 

V. Bozal and T. Llorens, eds., Espana. 
Vanguardia artistica y realidad: 
1936-1976. Barcelona, 1976, pp. 167, 
184-185 



109 



47- 

Painting with Gray and Blue. 1975 
(Pintuia con giis y azul) 
Acrylic and oil on canvas, 70% x 
51V&" (180 x 130 cm.) 
Collection Gloria Kirby, Madrid 




4 8. 

Untitled. 1976 

(Sin titulo) 

Acrylic and oil on canvas, 70% x 

51%" (180 x 130 cm.) 

Lent by Galeria Vandres, Madrid 




49- 

Untitled. 1977 

(Sin titulo) 

Acrylic and oil on canvas, 70% x 

51V6" (180 x 130 cm.) 

Collection the artist 



50. 

Yellow Bands r. 1978 

(Bandas amaiillas 1) 

Oil on canvas, 70% x 5 1 Vfe" (180 x 
130 cm.) 

Collection Museo de Arte Abstracto, 
Cuenca, Spain 




"3 



51- 

Yellow Bands 2. 1978 
(Bandas amarillas 2) 

Oil on canvas, 70% x 5i ! /s" (180 x 

130 cm.) 

Collection J. Sufiol, Barcelona 




114 



52. 

Yellow Mimosa. 1978 

(Amaiillo Mimosa) 

Oil on canvas, 70% x 51%" (180 x 

130 cm.) 

Collection ]. Sunol, Barcelona 




115 



DARIO VILLALBA 




My work since 1964 has been concentrated on the image. I felt the need to 
break with Spanish abstract informalism. My main focus is life and, more spe- 
cifically, human beings. Fundamental realities. Non-intellectualized feelings. 

In 1967 I began my encapsulations, which were shown at the Venice Bien- 
nale. I enclosed man in transparent plexiglass chrysalids, freeing the picture 
from the traditional support to locate it in three-dimensional space. 

The image I invented emerges like a bubble, a second technological skin 
that surrounds man and makes his inability to communicate more blatant. 

During the last decade the content of my work has gradually become 
more specific. Detachment coexists with emotiveness. In my most recent works 
this dualism is fused. This leads me to a more vital and visible manual in- 
volvement with the picture. 

It is obvious that the verbal explanations I make of work that is as intense 
as mine can only be detrimental to its interpretation. 



Born in San Sebastian (Basque 
region), 1939 

Lived in Boston, 1950-54, 1958-62 
Studied with Andre Lhote in Paris, 
1958; Harvard University (Depart- 
ment of Fine Arts), Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, 1958-62; Escuela 
Superior de Bellas Artes de San 
Fernando, Madrid, t962-64; Uni- 
versidad de Madrid (Philosophy and 
Letters) 
Lives in Madrid 



116 






SELECTED GROUr EXHIBITIONS 

World's Fair, New York, Pintura 

Espanola Contempordnea, 1964 

Galeria El Bosco, Madrid, Cinco 

Pintores Espanoles en la VII Bienal 

de Sao Paulo, 1965 

Museo Espaiiol de Arte Contem- 

poraneo, Madrid, Tcstimonio 70, 

March 1970. Traveled to Cologne; 

Montpellier; London; The 

Netherlands 

Museum voor Schone Kunsten, 

Ghent, Jonge Spaanse Kunst, May 

15-June 15, 1971 

VII Biennale de Paris, September 

24-November r, 1971 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid, La Paloma, 

June 5 -July 31, 1972 

Musee d'Art Moderne (Musee 

Experimental III|, Lausanne, 

Implosion, November 3-December 

10, 1972 

Medellin, Colombia, Bienal de 

Medellin. 1972 

Musee dArt Moderne, Paris, Salon 
de mai, 1972, 1973 
Lunds Konsthall, Lund, Sweden, 
Spanskt. November 10-December 
9, 1973 

Pavilion d'Exposition Bastille, Paris, 
Premier Salon International d'Art 
Contemporain, January 26-February 
3, 1974 

Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts, 
Brussels, Art Espagnol d'Aujourd' 
hui, June 6-July 14, 1974 
Catalogue 

Haus der Kunst, Spanisches 
Kulturinstitut, Munich, Spanische 
Kunst Hcutc, August 31-October 6, 
1974 

XIII Bienal de Sao Paulo, October- 
December 1975. Catalogue 
Galeria Ponce, Mexico City, Realis- 
mos en Espana, October-December 
1975 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid, Vandres 
1970-1975, December n, 1975- 
January 10, t976 



Galeria Biosca, Madrid, 75 anos de 
escultura en Espana, 1975 
Provincial Museum of Modern Art 
Hyogo, Japan, Exposicion de Pintura 
Espanola desde el Renacimineto 
hasta nuestros Dias, 1976. Traveled 
to Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
Tokyo; Kitakyushu Municipal 
Museum of Art 
Ktinstlerhaus, Vienna, K45- 
International Fair of the Avantgarde, 
February 17-21, 1977 
Fundacio Joan Miro, Barcelona, 
Homenaie a Allende, 1977 
Fundacio Gulbenkian, Lisbon, 
PintuM Espanola, 1978 
Museo de Arte Contemporaneo de 
Madrid, Panorama 78, 1978 
Muzeum Narodowe, Warsaw, Con- 
tcmporary Spanish Painting. May 
1979. Traveled to Narodnf Galerie, 
Prague, June 21-July 22 
XV Bienal Internacional de Sao 
Paulo. October 3-November 9, 1979. 
Catalogue 

SELECTED ONE-MAN EXHIBITIONS 

Galeria El Bosco, Madrid, Cronica 
de Palomares, 1967 
Museo Espanol de Arte Contem- 
poraneo, Madrid, May 1970 
Venice, XXXV Biennale Inter- 
nazionalc d'Arte, Spanish Pavilion, 
June 24-October 25, 1970 
Galleria del Naviglio, Milan, De- 
cember 2-13, 1970. Catalogue 
Studio C, Brescia, January 16-31, 
1 97 1 

Galeria Ramon Duran, Madrid, 
June 21-July 6, 1971 
Musee de l'Art et de l'Histoire, 
Geneva, October 4-31, 1971 
Deson-Zaks Gallery, Chicago, Jan- 
uary 28-February 29, 1972 
Galerie Henry Meyer, Lausanne, 
closed February 17, 1972 
XII Bienal de Silo Paulo, October- 
December 1973. Catalogue 



Espace Pierre Cardin, Paris, Novem- 
ber 1973-January 1974 
Galeria Vandres, Madrid, April 24- 
June 10, 1974. Catalogue 
Frankfurter Kunstverein, Dario 
Villalba: Objekte und Bilder, June 
28-August n, 1974 

Kblner Kunstmarkt, Cologne, 
October 19-24, 1974 
Louisiana Museum, Humlebaek, 
Denmark, January 18-February 23, 
1975. Catalogue 

Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, 
Rotterdam, May 30-July 14, 1975 
Basel, International Art Fair, ^4rt 
6-75, June 18-24, !975 
Stadtmuseum Bochum, Germany, 
September 12-October 19, 1975. 
Traveled to Heidelberger Kunst- 
verein, February 22-March 21, 1976. 
Catalogue 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 
Dario Villalba: Retrospective 1972- 
T976, April 1-30, 1976. Catalogue 
Galerie Gras, Vienna, January is- 
February 12, 1977 

Ktinstlerhaus Wien, Vienna, Janu- 
ary 15-February 6, 1977. Catalogue 
Galeria Juana Mordo, Madrid, 
November 7-December 9, 1978 
Galeria Vandres, Madrid, Dfln'o 
Villalba: Obra 1974-197.? — Pintura, 
November 9-December 16, 1978. 
Catalogue 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Newspapers and Periodicals 
Moreno Galvan, "Dario Villalba. 
En el museo de Arte Moderno. 
Madrid," Triunfo (Barcelona), June 
26, 1971 

Jacques-D. Rouiller, "Les Hommes- 
Bulles de Villalba," La Gazette 
litteraire (Lausanne), May 2, 1972 



117 



Elena Florez, "El Pabellon de Espaiia 
en la XII Bienal de Sao Paulo," Goya 
(Madrid), no. 116, September 1973, 
pp. 127-128 

P. Aguilar, "Premio Bienal Sao 
Paulo. Dario Villalba," ARA, no. 38, 
October 11, 1973, pp. 139-144 
Miguel Fernandez-Braso, "Dario 
Villalba, Premio Bienal de Sao 
Paulo," ABC (Madrid), October 16, 
1973 

Ramon Chao, "Dario Villalba: una 
transparencia biologica," Tiiunfo 
(Barcelona), December 15, 1973 
Juan M. Bonet, "Conversation with 
Dario Villalba," Flash An (Milan), 
December 1973-January 1974, p. 26 
Marta Traba, "Los Ilustradores de 
la alienacion," Las Provincias 
(Valencia), February 2, 1974 
Maria Llmsa Borras, "entretien avec 
Dario Villalba," L'Art Vivant (Paris), 
June 1974, p. 16 

Jose Maria Moreno "Dario Villalba, 
en la sala grande de Vandres," 
Tiiunfo (Barcelona), August 3, 1974 
Pierre Restany, "Dario Villalba: det 
rene engagement i det eksistentielle 
vidnesbyrd," Louisiana Revy 
(Humlebaek, Denmark), no. 4, Jan- 
uary 18-February 23, 197s, pp. 8-10 
Enrique Azcoaga, "Dario Villalba y 
el Sufrimiento," Mundo Hispdnico, 
no. 322, January 1975, pp. 44-47 
"Tres analisis ejemplares," Don 
Pablo. May 197(1, pp. 39-41 
Rene Micha, "L'Oeuvre noire de 
Villalba," Art International, vol. 
XXI, January 1977, pp. 20-22 
Maria Llmsa Borras, "Dario Villalba: 
l'art comme processus," Art Press 
International, vol. 4, February 1977, 
p. 3t 

Emiel Langui, "Hommage a la 
douleur," Attitudes (Paris), no. 
39/44, April-November 1977, pp. 
47-48 

Santiago Anion, "Dario Villalba," 
El Pais (Madrid), November 9, 1978, 
p. 26 



Maria Teresa Casanelles, "Dario 
Villalba en las galerias Juana Mordo 
y Vandres," El Europeo. November 
2i, 1978, p. 50 

Mario Merlino, "Dario Villalba: 
cuerpos y figuras," Opinion, No- 
vember 24, 1978 

Victoria Combalia, "La neuva via 
de Dario Villalba," Batik (Bar- 
celona), no. 46, December 1978 

Book 

Hans-Jiirgen Miiller, Kunst kommt 
nicht von Konnen, Stuttgart, 1976, 



118 



S3- 

The Wait. 1974 

(La Espeiaj 

Photographic emulsion and oil on 

canvas with aluminum and perspex, 

105% x 70% x siVs" (267 x 180 x 
135 cm.) 

Lent by Galena Vandres, Madrid 




119 



54- 

The Wait. 1979 

(La Espeia) 

Photographic emulsion, bituminous 

paint, oil and wax on canvas, 3 

panels, each 79 x 63" (200 x 160 cm.) 

Private Collection, Madrid 




120 



55- 

Feet. 1979 

(Pies) 

Photographic emulsion and oil on 

canvas, 79 x 63" (200 x 160 cm.) 

Collection the artist 







5 6. 

Face 1979. 1979 

(Faz 1979) 

Photographic emulsion, oil, wax 

and pencil on canvas, 79 x 63" 

(200 x 160 cm.) 

Collection the artist 




123 



57- 

Head I 79. 1979 

fCabeza 1 79) 

Photographic emulsion, oil, wax 

and pencil on canvas, 79 x 63" 

(200 x 160 cm.) 

Collection J. Sunol, Barcelona 




124 



S8. 

Mystic 79. 1979 

(Mistico 79) 

Photographic emulsion, oil and wax 

on canvas, 79 x 63" (200 x 160 cm.) 

Collection the artist 




125 



ZUSH 




Born Alberto Porta in Barcelona, 

1946 

Changed name to Zush, 1968 

Self-taught as a painter 

Moved to Ibiza, 1968 

Worked in New York, 1975, 1977 

Lives in Ibiza 



The rationalization of my work is valid when individual. 
THE SYSTEM: A dialogue between my own Language (calligraphy meaning- 
less, meaningful) and universal symbols (eye, world, beings . . .) Can be inter- 
preted as distinct and personal paths. 

CONSTANTS OF INVESTIGATION: The materialization of ideas. The biog- 
raphy of my thoughts and feelings transformed into my private mythology. 
The situation of beings in virtual time. 
The fusion of Traditional and Technological visual Media. 
The use of Space with and without constants or limits. 
The evolution of my language (ANURA). 

MY IDEAL: My work to be the essence of all Art extant past present and 
future. 



SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS 

Galena Rene Metras, Barcelona, 
Gali, Fried, Porta, February 9-March 
1, 1966 

Galeria Rene Metras, Barcelona, 
Artigau, Jordi Gali, Porta, April 
7-25, 1967 

IX Bienal de Sdo Paulo, September- 
December 1967. Catalogue 
Galeria Vandres, Madrid, Eros y el 
Arte Actual en Espaha, May-June 
1971 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid, La Paloma, 
June 5 -July 31, 1972 
IKI, Diisseldorf, lnternationaler 
Markt iiir aktuelle kunst neues 
Messagelande . October 6-n, 197a 
Medellin, Colombia, III Bienal de 
Arte Colteier, May i-June 15, 1972 
Lunds Konsthall, Lund, Sweden, 
Spanskt, November 10-December 
9, 1973 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, Spanische 
Kunst Heme, August 31-October 6, 
1974. Catalogue 

Galeria Seiquer, Madrid, Homenaje 
al Surrealismo. January 197s 
Galeria Vandres, Madrid, Vandres 
1970-1975. December 11, 197s- 
January 10, 1976 



Kassel, Germany, Documents 6, 
June 24-October 7, 1977. Catalogue 
Galeria Rene Metras, Barcelona, 
El Collage a Catalunya, February- 
March 1978 

Galeria Ponce, Madrid, Grdfica, 
Fantastica, March 10, 1978 
Art Gallery of New South Wales, 
Third Biennale of Sydney. April 12- 
May 27, 1979 

Galerias Ciento, Eude, Joan Prats, 
Sala Gaspar, Barcelona, Festa de la 
Letras, September 18, r979 

Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, 

New Spaces — The Holographcr's 

Vision. September 26, 1979-March 

21, 1980. Catalogue 

Stuttgart, Europn 79. September 29- 

October 8, r979 

XV Bienal Internacional de SSo 

Paulo. October 3-November 9, 1979 

ONE-MAN EXHIBITIONS 

Galeria Rene Metras, Barcelona, 
Alucinaciones, November is- 
December 10, 1968 
Galeria Ivan Spence, Ibiza, 
Alucinaciones, July 26, 1969 
Galeria Seiquer, Madrid, May 5-25, 
1970 



126 



Galeria Rene Metras, Barcelona, 

Ego Zush Production, October 7- 

November 4, 1970 

Galeria Sen, Madrid, Ego Zush 

Production, January 18-February 6, 

1 97 1 

Galerie Rive Gauche, Brussels, May 

5 -June 4, 1 97 1 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid, May 29- 

June 28, 1973. Catalogue 

Galeria Ivan Spence, Ibiza, 1973 

Galerias Dau al Set, Rene Metras, 

Barcelona, Obras dc Porta Zush 

i<)6s-7r, November 20-December 21, 

1974. Catalogue 

Galeria Ivan Spence, Ibiza, 1974 

Galeria Temps, Valencia, April 3- 

25, 1975. Catalogue 

Sala de la Cultura de la Caia de 

Ahorros de Navarra, Pamplona, 

October 15-26, 1975. Catalogue 

Galeria Vandres, Madrid, After the 

Eclipse. October-November 1976 

Marlborough Galeria d'Arte, Rome, 

La Morte della mia vita passata, 

November-December 1976. 

Catalogue 

Galerie de France, Paris, March 10- 

April 16, 1977. Catalogue 

Galleriet, Lund, Sweden, April 15- 
May 3, 1978 

Galerie Dr. Ursula Schurr, Stuttgart, 
March 3-April 5, 1979 
Galeria Vandres, Madrid, Yasmu. 
January 1 ^-February 16, 1980 
Galeria Joan Prats, Barcelona, 
Tucare. February 1980 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Newspapers and Periodicals 

Mireille Aranias, "Zush, le solitaire 
d'Ibiza," Special (Brussels), no. 319, 
May 12, 1971, pp. 59-60 
Miguel Fernandez-Braso, 
"Encuentro con Zush," ABC 
(Madrid!, June 2, 1973, pp. 69-70 
"Zush," Pueblo (Madridl, June 7, 
1973 



Miguel Veyrat, "Zush: 'ha nacido 
el hiperrealismo mental,' " Nuevo 
Diario (Madrid), June 7, 1973 
Miguel Logrofio, "Zush: el individ- 
ualismo como conducta estetica," 
Blanco y Negro (Madrid), June 9, 
1973 

Elena Florez, "El Misterio y la 
inteligencia en la obra de Zush"; 
"Zush: 'Tengo gran esperanza en la 
renacimiento de la humanidad,' " 
El Alcazar (Madrid), June 23, 1973, 
p. 29 

Javier Rubio, "Una puerta en la 

Pintura: Zush," ABC (Madrid), June 

23, 1973 

Joaquim Dols Rusinol, "Porta Zush 

en Dau al Set," Destino (Barcelona), 

no. 1940, December 7, 1974 

Maria Lluisa Borras," Alberto Porta 

— 'Zush/ " Gazeta del Arte (Madrid), 

no. 36, January 30, 1975, pp. 4-5 

Luis Figuerola Ferreti, "El Arte en 

Madrid," Goyn (Madrid), no. 133, 

July 1976, pp. 45-46 

Santiago Amon, "jPorta Versus 

Zush?," El Pais (Madrid), October 

1976 

Gilles Plazy, "Zush ou l'inattendu," 

Le Quotidien de Paris, March 30, 

1977 

Bruno Cora, "Zush," Data (Milan), 

no. 26, April-June 1977 

Giinther Wirth, "Hieroglyphische 

Felder," Stuttgarder Zeitung. March 

23, 1979 

El Pais (Madrid), November 9, 1979, 

p. 5 

Books 

Zush, Alberto Porta: La Explosion 
de la Ments, Barcelona, L969 
Alexandre Cirici, L'Art Catald 
Contemporani. Barcelona, 1970, pp. 
255,297, 321-322, 325, 342 
Hans-Jiirgen Miiller, Kunst kommt 
nicht von Konnen, Stuttgart, 1976, 
p. 2S7 



127 



59- 

Diobeyena. 1974 

Acrylic and pencil on paper, 29% x 

22" (76 x 56 cm. I 

Lent by Galena Vandres, Madrid 






■ ■•: 






'4l M-jr^Mfr,);..' 






./ 









:>k, 






- 



'<:. 



128 



6o. 

Zizards Nasha. 1975 

Pencil, watercolor and collage on 

paper, 40% x 28 %" (102 x 73 cm.) 

Collection Lambert, Brussels 



MM 



K i\ 447/ 



£ ml, I '■ m 



. 



Mm 

WmWm 



mm. 



S>i 





^ 4|M 



w>,^-. 




129 



6i. 

Braeina Heioea. 1975 
Pencil, watercolor and collage on 
paper, 30^ x 20%" (77 x 51 cm.| 
Lent by Galeria Vandres, Madrid 




130 



62. 

The Death of My Past Life 11. 1975 
Mixed media on paper, 40V6 x 28%" 
(102 x 73 cm.) 
Collection J. Sufiol, Barcelona 



I 





131 



6 3 . 

Ego Naia. 1976 

Oil, pencil and collage on paper, 

22V2 x 29 7 / s " (57 x 76 cm.) 

Lent by Galena Vandres, Madrid 

64. 

Africa Verolutzi Euioda Dovest. 

1978 

Oil, pencil, wax and collage on 

paper, 22% x 30%" [58 x 78 cm.) 

Lent by Galena Vandres, Madrid 









132 



65- 

Time. 1978 

Mixed media on paper, 29 Vi x 41%" 

(75 x 105 cm.) 

Lent by Galena Vandres, Madrid 




133 



66. 

Asura-Tucare. 1979 

Oil and ink on paper, 41 % x 27 Vi" 

(106 x 70 cm.) 

Collection The Solomon R. 

Guggenheim Museum, Anonymous 

Gift 



Q 




134 



6 7 . 

The Tarot Cards. 1976-79 

Mixed media on paper, 7 cards, each 

29I/8 x i7Vs" (74 x 43.5 cm.) 

Lent by Galeria Vandres, Madrid 



1 £ AV -AAv v;y $ # 




>& 



. •'^"J- :iJ " ■'" v : ''"»'" h: ' : c ; - '"•"*' "''At* 







MMMM 









AAAA^'-v 




. 




a ■ 

. . a • ■■ • 

- - - 



^■-/i 



135 



68. 

The World of the Comparative 

Baserds. 1978-79 

(El Mundo de los Baserds 

comparables) 

Mixed media on paper, 38 pages, 

each 11% x 7%" (28.9 x 20 cm.) 

Collection J. Sunol, Barcelona 




r^~.C<p ? , p 




136 



6 9 . 

The Book of Feathers. 1978-79 
Mixed media on paper, 38 pages, 
each ia% x io 1 ^" (31.5 x 26 cm.) 
Collection the artist 



• 

\ 

t 


1 


» 


4 


lb ^.. 

PBS" > 




• / 


| ~ ^ 




137 



70. 

Tucaies-Evidas I-IV. 1978-79 

Oil, acrylic, pencil and ink on 

canvas, 4 panels, each 21% x 55%" 

(55 x 142 cm.) 

Lent by Galeria Vandres, Madrid 



•!•' '• ■*''-. 



i 

Mm 






6 • <t 




* > >mffi, 



138 



? 













■ 



;^ 7 i 



3 "■ 



i 



I ■ 



■ 



• 



"■ 



^ M 








139 



71- 

Vemisiz Evode. 1979 

Acrylic on canvas, 76% x 113I4" 

(195 x 288 cm.) 

Lent by Galena Vandres, Madrid 




140 



141 



SELECTED GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Newspapers and Periodicals 

Juan Antonio Aguirre, "New Gen- 
eration in Spain," Art and Artists, 
no. 12, March 1971, pp. 50-53 
Maria Teresa Blanch, "El Arte Espa- 
nol de 1980: Abstraccion y Natural- 
ismo," Batik (Barcelona), no. so, 
1979, PP- 5-7 

Juan M. Bonet, "Corto viaje a 
Valencia y a su pintura," El Pais 
(Madrid), December 23, 1976 
Juan M. Bonet, "El arte joven," La 
Calle (Madrid), no. 70, July 24, 1979, 
PP- 44-45 

Valeriano Bozal, "Planteamiento 
Sociologico de la Nueva Pintura 
Espafiola," Cuadcrnos hispano- 
americanos, no. 235, 1969, pp. 59-60 
Victoria Combalia, "Les avant- 
gardes en Espagne," Art Press (Paris), 
no. 22, January-February 1976, pp. 
26-27 

William Dyckes, "Young Spanish 
Artists," Guidepost, March 10, 
1967, p. 25 

Jose-Agusto Franca, "Espagne 1956- 
1966," Aujourd'hui. no. 52, Febru- 
ary 1966, p. 56 

Manuel Garcia i Garcia, "Notas 
sobre la pintura valenciana de los 
setenta," Batik (Barcelona), no. 50, 
July/August 1979, pp. 43-45 
Henri Ghent, "The Second Genera- 
tion," Art Gallery, no. 9, June 1974, 
pp. 59-65 

Henri Ghent, "Spanish Art in Tran- 
sition," Art International, vol. XIX, 
September 15, 1975, pp. 15-22 
Daniel Giralt-Miracle, "Recording 
Reality," Art and Artist*, no. 3, June 
1977, PP- 30-35 

Fernando Huici, "Seis artistas valen- 
cianos," El Pais (Madrid), November 
3, 1977, P- 26 

Jay Jacobs, "Spanish Abstract Art: 
The First Generation," Art Gallery. 
no. 9, June 1974, pp. 16-22, 68 
Hilton Kramer, "Painters and Poli- 
tics in The New Spain," The New 



York Times, June 3, 1979, pp. D 1, 
D27 

Gloria Moure, "The Specificity and 
Dead-end of Spanish Artistic Cre- 
ation," Art actuel: Skira annuel, 
Geneva, 1979, pp. 142-144 
Alvin Smith, "No inspiraciones Pide 
el pintor a di'ossino doblones," .4rt 
Gallery, no. 9, June 1974, pp. 70-73 

Exhibition Catalogues 

V. Bozal and T. Llorens, "Spagna: 
Vanguarda Artistica, Realita So- 
ciale," Biennale lnternazionale 
d'Arte, Venice, June-October 1976, 
pp. 176-185 

Francisco Calvo and Angel Gon- 
zalez Garcia, Cronica de la Pintura 
de postguerra: 1940-1960, Madrid, 
Galena Multitud, October-Novem- 
ber 1976 

Juan Eduardo Cirlot, Millarcs Cano- 
gar Rivera Saura, New York, Pierre 
Matisse Gallery, March 15-April q, 
i960 

Victoria Combalia, "Espana: el 
medio artistico en un momento de 
transicion," ro e Biennale de Paris, 
1977, PP- 36-38 

Frank O'Hara, New Spanish Paint- 
ing and Sculpture. New York, The 
Museum of Modern Art, July 20- 
September 25, i960 

Books 

Juan Antonio Aguirre, Arte Ultimo, 
Madrid, 1969 

V. Bozal and T. Llorens, eds., Espana. 
Vanguardia artistica y realidad 
social: 1936-1976. Barcelona, 1976 
Vicente Aguilera Cerni, Iniciacion 
al arte espanol de la postguerra, Bar- 
celona, 1970 

Alexandre Cirici, V Art catald con- 
temporani. Barcelona, 1969 
William Dvckes, ed., Conk'mpo- 
rary Spanish Art. New York, 1975 
J. Marin-Medina, J. Molas and A. 
Puig, Dau al Set: ?o anos despu&s, 
Barcelona, n.d. 



14a 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS 



WORKS IN THE EXHIBITION 

Color 

Manuel Bragado, Richard Conahay, 

Elias Dolcet and Juan Dolcet: cat. 

nos. 13, 17, 41, 45, 47, so, 51, 54, 

61,67 

Ramon Calvet: cat. nos. 2, s 

Courtesy Teresa Gancedo: cat. 

nos. 22, 27 

Muntadas: cat. no. 28, pp. 78, 79 

Courtesy Miquel Navarro: cat. 

nos. jo, j 3 

Black and White 

Manuel Bragado, Richard Conahay, 
Elias Dolcet and Juan Dolcet: cat. 
nos. 14-16, 18, 19, 31, 32, 34-36, 38, 
40, 4^-44, 46, 48, 49, 5 2 , 5 3, S5"59, 
60, 62-66, 68-71 

Ramon Calvet: cat. nos. 1, 3, 4, 6-11 
Courtesy Carmen Calvo: cat. no. 12 
Courtesy Teresa Gancedo: cat. 
nos. 20, 21, 23, 24a, 24b, 2s, 26 
Muntadas: cat. no. 28, pp. 77-80 
Courtesy Miquel Navarro: cat. 
nos. 29, 37 



FIGURES IN THE TEXT 

Courtesy William Dyckes: p. 27 

Courtesy Galerie Karl Flinker, 

Pans: p. 16 bottom 

Courtesy Guadalimar, Madrid: p. 30 

Courtesy Antonio Lopez-Garcia: 

p. 21 

Courtesy Marlborough Gallery Inc., 

New York: pp. 13 bottom left, 23 

Robert E. Mates and Mary Donlon: 

pp. 11, 12 

Courtesy Pierre Matisse Gallery, 

New York: p. 13, top, bottom right 

Courtesy Galeria Rene Metras, 

Barcelona: p. 16 top left 

Courtesy Juana Mordo: p. 18 

Muntadas: p. 25 

Courtesy Galeria Vandres, Madrid: 

p. 16 top right 

PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE ARTISTS 

Francisco Jose Alberola, Valencia: 

pp. 48, 82 

Joan Borras: p. 38 

Richard Conahay: pp. 96, 106 

Courtesy Teresa Gancedo: p. 58 

G. Mezza: p. 68 left 

Domingo Sarrey: p. 116 

Tamiranda: p. 68 right 

Courtesy Zush: p. 126 



143 



EXHIBITION 80/3 

4,500 copies of this catalogue, de- 
signed by Malcolm Grear Designers, 
typeset by Dumar Typesetting, Inc., 
have been printed by Eastern Press 
in March 1980 for the Trustees of 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Foundation on the occasion of the 
exhibition New Images from Spain. 



144 



SERGI AGUILAK 



CARMEN ( ALVO 




zusu